Edexcel AS unit 2 Psychology

examples of anorexia with pos/neg/vicarious reinforcement, attention, retention and motor reproduction
Operant conditioning and Social learning theory explanation for gender
Animals in lab experiments
Types of data (measurment)Little hans + evaluation
Describe and Evaluate Case studies
MRI + PET scans
Money 1975 + Evaluation
Gender Development in psychodynamic approach
Describe + evaluate Biological factors on gender
Classical conditioning
Aversion therapy for alchohol dependence + evaluation
Axline (Dibbs)

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Definitions from multiple choice questions

-Extinction refers to when  = the CR is no longer produced after the CS

-Operant conditioning = conditioning of voluntary behaviours

-Chi squared test = used to see which hypotheses should be accepted/rejected

-Behaviour shaping = rewarding a child everytime it does something additional

-Anthropomorphism = wrongly generalising from animal studies to humans

-Covert observation = ppts are observed without their knowledge

-E.G of motivational processes = a child praised for learning to eat with a spoon

-Aversion therapy changes behaviour by = changing the associations we make

-Neutral stimulus = something that would not normally trigger a specific response

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Definitions from multiple choice questions

-Models are most likely to be imitated = if behaviour leads to desirable consequences

-Weakness of longitudinal studies = ppts may drop out over time

-Case studies use = qualitative data

-Identification = process of taking on board the values + beliefs of same sex parent

-In a cross sectional study = diff ppts are used at the same time

-Little Hans used two defence mechanisms = reppression + displacement

-Axon = partof the neuron that takes info away from the cell body

-Concordance rates = tell us the likelihood that both twins share the same disorder

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Anorexia-key issue

-Anorexia - eating disorder characterised by bein extremely underweight 15% lower than it should be

-Sufferers tend to see themselves fat when they are painfully thin

-usually starts in teenage years

-Girls stop menstruating as their bodys 'shut down'

-Less common outside western world + Common in models/ballet dancers

-Occurs by not eating/doing too much excercise

-Side effects- loose interest in socialising, tiredness, feeling cold, stomach pain 

-Can last for many years + without treatment sufferers become ill and may die

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-SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY suggests people imitate role models; celebrities + people with prestige are likely to be imitated

-People who are percieved as similar are imitated. Girls are likely to imitate female role models rather than male role models

-The trend in the 2000's was a size 0 catwalk models, which isn't surprising given the principles of SLT girls desire to want to be thin is common

-Anorexia - can be explained by operant conditioning - rewards for being thing & punishment for being fat

-There is a current focus on the 'obesity crisis' poeple would want to avoid the criticism of being obese (neg reinforcement) leads to a desire to be thin

-Pychodynamic - prevents a girl who may want to remain a child because of fixation from growing up

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Examples of anorexia (in relation to keywords)

-Positive reinforcement - Sally has been dieting & she recieves a compliment from her friend saying she looks nice

-Negative reinforcement (removal of something negative , do something good) - Arzoo loses weight & stops being bullied so she loses more

-Vicarious reinforcement - Annie has seen skinny models earn lots of money

-Motor reproduction - Julie is now binge eating & then vomiting copying a ******* hollyoaks

-Attention - zainab has read been reading 'closer' magazine and has been paying particular attention to skinny celebs

-Retention (when you remember) - casey has remembered what the skinny models look like and imagines herself as being thinner

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Outline of Operant conditioning explanation for ge

-Gender behaviour is learnt by reinforcements and punishments from the environment

-Operant conditioning suggests we repeat behaviour that is rewarded and stop doing behaviour  that is punished

-Role models may reinforce what is seen as appropriate male behaviour in boys and girls may be punished for displaying inappropriate female behaviour

-E.g a girl may be rewarded when playing with make-up but ignored/told off for playing with guns

-This reinforcement or punishment is shaping a child's behaviour to conform to gender stereotypes

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Outline of Social learning theory explanation for

-Gender behaviour is learned through modelling and imitations of role models

-These can be same sex models the child is similar to or looks up to eg parents

-e.g a girl may watch an older one putting on makeup and try to copy her, this in turn leads the child to conform with the same sex model

-The model is imitated, attended to, remembered and then rewarded for any behaviours to motivate the child to repeat the behaviour again

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Animals in Lab experiments

the Biological approach animals are used a lot in research including lesion studies

- Lesion studies can be carried out on animals, by surgically cutting/burning away a part of the brain by using drugs or other techniques to temporarily 'shut off' brain

- IV - causing damage to brain (lesioning)

-DV - the resulting changes in behaviour that may occur

- Hetherington & ranson (1939) Obesity in the rat
>They anesthetize the rat, insert a needle into its brain touching the hippothalamus
>Conclusion - Hypothalamus may play a part in controlling appetites

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Types of Data

- Nominal Data - Data that uses categories e.g male/female, pass/fail

- Ordinal Data - Data that ranks things e.g in  races 1st , 2nd , 3rd

- Interval Data - Data that has order and shows intervals between scores- jane came 1st with 96%(percentage = interval data)

Methods = laboratory, natural and field experiment

Designs = Matched pairs, independent design, repeated measures

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Little Hans (1909)

- Aim - to help with a phobia of horses that a five year old boy called Hans (pseudonym- fake name) had developed

- Background - Data came from Hans' father, who sent letters to Freud, Freud only met Hans 2/3 times

- Case description
>Little Hans had an interest in his 'widdler' (penis)
>He dreamt about widdlers & wiping childrens bottoms
>When he was younger he played with his widdler and had got told off by his mum
>Hans had hatred towards his father, he wanted him dead
>He was jealous of his sister who was born when he was 3 1/2
>Freud & Hans father suggested to Hans that when he was watching his mother bath the sis did he wish her head went under the water, Hans agreed
>Hans had a phobia of horses and was afraid one would bite him
>He had a dream about a giraffe, there was a tall one (dad-phallic) and a crumpled giraffe (mum) he took the crumpled one away from the tall giraffe

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Case Analysis (Freuds interpretations)
-When Hans denied interest in widdlers except in dreams - this is evidence of REPRESSION - pushing unwanted desires into his unconscious

-He dreamt about wiping bottoms - he enjoyed having this done to him - showed pleasure at the ANAL stage

-Hans wanted hid father to go away/die because he enjoyed his mothers attention & the jealousy of his sister is an example of the same desire for the mother - OEDIPUS COMPLEX

-His fear of 'white horses' represents his fear of the father

-When the girl was told not to put her finger on the horse - reminded Hans when he was told of for playing with his widdler - CASTRATION FEAR

-When Hans said about the doll that mummy is the mother, Hans the father & his own Father the grandfather - shows he's been cured - resolution of OEDIPUS COMPLEX - identification > he identified males are the fathers

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Evaluation of Little Hans

- Generalisability - only one 5 year old male ppt was used, Freud believed EVERYONE went through the oedipus complex

- Reliability - there was a focus on real expeiences (phobias) in a real situation (hans' life)

- Subjectivity - Method used was a case study so data can be open to interpretation

- Validity - Freud knew Hans father, this was where info came from

- Application - can be applied to real life, play therapy is real therefore results = more valid

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Case Studies

- Case studies usually involve a LARGE AMOUNT of info about A SINGLE PERSON OR GROUP OF PPTS

- The people Freud normally studied were PATIENTS who came to him to solve MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS

- Case studies gather DETAILED data to get a large amount of detail

- Freud uses research methids eg FREE ASSOCIATION, FREUDIAN SLIPS & DREAM ANALYSIS to gathe info for his case studies

- An example of a case study  = Little Hans

STRENGTHS - case study data is in depth data of real people, it is obtained so increases validity
Case studies may be the only way to gather data as experiments may not be appropriate
WEAKNESSES - case studies cannot be generalised as they usually study one individual

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>shows structure of brain + any damage
>allows humans to compare normal + abnormal brains
>studies structure, tissues, looks for abnormalities + can measure bloodflow
>involves injecting a dye into the body to help show organs
>A strong magnetic field is passed over the body to pick up radiowaves from hydrogen atoms in water molecules to builed up a detailed image of the brain

>Shows a working brain in action
>studies brain acctivity levels + functions
>involves injecting a radioactive tracer into the bloodstream with a chemical used by the body eg glucose to see where most of the blood is flowing


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MONEY (1975)

Aim - to investigate whether gender is biologically determined at birth or whether it can be learned through socialisation (upbringing)

Procedure - In 1965 - identical twins Bruce + Brian were born
-At 10months they were sent for a circumcision operation
-Bruce was treated first a mistake caused his penis to almost completely be burnt off
-Brians operation was cancelled

-Bruces parents were distraught + unsure of how to bring Bruce up to deal with his 'dissability'
-They saw Money, a famous sexologist advertising on TV that children can be BROUGHT UP as either male or female
-His argument - sex of a child = determined by the process of their upbringing
-They contacted Money + decided to bring him up as a female
-1961 - surgically castrated + name changed to Brenda
- Parents began to dress 'him' only in dresses + encouraged him to play with dolls
-From age 12 the child was give oestrogen to encourage female rather than male puberty

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Nabilah Yasmin



Are these your own notes or answers taken from the mark schemes?

Sarah Nurmohamed


mark schemes, school notes and my own notes

Lorna Shaw


How can I compare gender developement between all 3 approaches stuck on 12 mark question?

Josh West


Thank you for these - They are very useful :)

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