Edexcel AS UNIT 2

Memory exercise

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Whcih two factors cause London forces to be strong

A greater number of electrons and an increasing surface contact area (straight chain molecule)

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Give three typical properties of liquids that can

High boiling point, high viscosity, high surface tension, unusually low density of ice, broad infra-red spectra absorption.

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What drives many ionic compounds to be soluble in

The energy released by the hydration of the ions.

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Why are smaller alcohols soluble in water and larg

They can all hydrogen bond with water, but the larger ones have large non-polar (hydrophobic) carbon chains.

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What does an oxidising agent do?

Accepts electrons and gets reduced.

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What does a reducing agent do?

Donates electrons and gets oxidised.

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What is meant by the term disproportionation?

Where the oxidation number of the SAME element both rises and falls in oxidation number.

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How does first ionisation energy change down a gro

It gets smaller as the atoms get larger as there are more electron shells and the outer electron becomes further away from the nucleus.

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What has to happen for one substance to dissolve i

  • Bonds in the substance have to break
  • Bonds in the solvent have to break
  • New bonds have to form between the substance and the solvent

A substance will only dissolve if the strength  of the new bonds formed is about the same as, or greater than, the strength of the bonds that are broken.

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How does the solubility of group 2 hydroxides chan

It increases

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How does the solubility of group 2 sulphates chang

It decreases

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How and why does the stability of group 2 carbonat

It increases as the cations get larger and less polarising.

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What causes flame colours to be produced?

Electrons are excited by heat to higher energy levels. When they fall back they release photons of light of fixed energy and colour.

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What is thermal decomposition?

Thermal decompsition is when a substance is broken down when heated.

The more thermally stable a substance is, the more heat it will take to break it down.

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What would you observe on thermal decomposition of

A brown gas (nitrogen dioxide) and droplets of water at the mouth of the test tube if it is hydrated.

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