The Cold War: How did the Cold War in Europe develop? 1943-1956

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  • Created by: noahla
  • Created on: 05-04-16 12:28

The Grand Alliance (1941)

  • Made up of USSRUSA and Britain
  • The Grand Alliance was created in 1941 to defeat Nazis - it was a 'marriage of convenience'
  • After Hitler defeated, relations became uneasy - split between communist east, and capitalist west
  • Ideological differences between the two superpowers
  • USSR wanted 'sphere of influence' in East Europe
  • Britain and USA wanted 'sphere of influence' in West Europe, Greece and Italy
  • There were three conferences between 1943 to 1945, aiming to improve relations
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The Teheran Conference (1943)

  • USA and Britain would open a second front to split German defences and take pressure of USSR
  • USSR would declare war on Japan once Germany was defeated
  • Poland would be given land from Germany, but lose some to USSR
  • All 'Big Three' (Stalin - USSR, Churchill - Britain, Roosevelt - USA) involved
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The Yalta Conference (1945)

  • Germany would be demilitarised and would have to pay reparations
  • Plans begun on how to divide Germany
  • The United Nations (UN) would replace the League of Nations
  • Nazi Party banned and war criminals tried infront of international court
  • USSR declare war on Japan 3 months after Germany defeated
  • Poland would be in Soviet 'sphere of influence', but run on a broader democratic basis
  • All 'Big Three' involved
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The Potsdam Conference (1945)

  • Roosevelt died, replaced with Truman who is less willing to comprimise
  • Lots of tension as Truman secretly tested atomic bomb without telling Stalin
  • Germany divided into 4 zones, administered by USA, USSR, Britain and France
  • Berlin divided into 4 zones, despite being in the USSR-controlled zone
  • Give USSR a quarter of the industrial machinery from the 3 other zones, as it was the weakest industrially
  • Ban Nazi Party
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Atomic Bomb

  • Truman believed he had the master card in the atomic bomb
  • Stalin planned to protect USSR by creating a buffer zone of satellite states. This separated communist east from capitalist west; an Iron Curtain
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Telegrams (1946)

  • Truman recieved secret 'Long Telegram' from Kennan
  • Stalin had given a speech calling for the destruction of capitalism
  • USSR was building military power
  • USA should contain communism
  • Stalin recieved secret 'Novikov's Telegram' 
  • American public preparing for war with USSR
  • Following Roosevelt's death, American government didn't want to cooperate with USSR
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Truman Doctrine (1947)

  • To address the threat of Communism, Truman created a new policy
  • World had a choice between communist tyranny and democratic freedom
  • America would send troops and economic resources to governments threatened by Communism
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Marshall Plan (1947)

  • Marshall Plan was a dual strategy for dealing with communism, based on a policy of containment
  • It aimed to beat communism through military force
  • It aimed to beat communism through economic aid - $13 billion was spent by the American government to rebuild shattered European economies
  • Stalin viewed this as dollar imperialism and so created a series of satellite states
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Soviet Expansion of Satellite States (1945-1948)

  • Satellite states are an officially independent country, but in reality is controlled by another country
  • From 1945-49 the Soviets expanded influence over Eastern Europe; countries like Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary became satellite states
  • The USSR did this by creating an atmosphere of fear and mistrust, using force from the army and police, and rationalising industries so that they were reliant on the USSR
  • Yugoslavia expansion was unsuccessful, as Tito wanted more control as a country, taking aid under the Marshall Plan
  • Hungary was taken by 'free' elections through intimidation
  • Poland saw a coalition of left wing parties come to power, and used intimidation in 'free' elections - communists took over entirely
  • Czechoslovakia was taken through the army in 1948 as they were unable to win fair elections
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Cominform: The Communist Information Bureau (1947)

  • International organisation that represented Communist parties across Europe
  • Eastern governments refused Marshall Aid
  • It ensured loyalty of Eastern European governments, by investigating government ministers
  • Comecon (1949) was the Eastern equivalent of the Marshall Plan
  • This split Europe into two camps
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Bizonia and Trizonia

  • British and American zones operating as one - known as Bizonia
  • Bizonia cooperated well with the French zone - known as Trizonia
  • Trizonia created a German constitution and the 'Deutschmark' currency 
  • Stalin not consulted, created mistrust as he believed they were creating a divided Germany
  • Stalin didn't want America to have further German influence and American troops to be stationed in Germany
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The Berlin Blockade (1948-1949)

  • Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin - it separated West Germany from the capital and prevented the government based in Berlin from operating in West Germany
  • Stalin hoped to show that the establishment of a seperate state in Germany could not work in practice
  • Truman responded with the Berlin Airlfit (Jan 1949), in which he supplied West Berliners with 600-700 tonnes of food and supplies a day - this prevented the blockade from succeeding
  • Truman's peaceful response made Stalin look aggressive with his military blockade
  • West Germany became an independent state, called the Federal Republic of Germany (FDR)
  • East Germany became a satellite state, called the German Democratic Republic (GDR), in which Soviet troops remained
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Formation of NATO (1949) & Warsaw Pact (1955)

  • NATO was created as a result of fear of a military confronation, like the Berlin Blockade resulting in war; it aimed to 'keep the USA in, and the USSR out'
  • The West created an alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) [1949], in which the members had a responsiblity to protect one another in the event of war
  • NATO was a significant development - it was a military alliance with the specific aim of defending the West against Communism
  • NATO had members such as USA, Britain, Italy, France and West Germany (1955)
  • In response the USSR responded by creating the Warsaw Pact (1955), which was a military alliance between Eastern European countries
  • Members included East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia
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Arms Race (1945-55)

  • The arms race was the race between the two superpowers, that aimed to maintain a large military and develop nuclear weaponary
  • USA had developed and tested a nuclear bomb ('Fat Man') by 1945, USSR had developed and tested nuclear bomb by 1949 ('Layercake') - this lead to the USA creating hydrogen bombs
  • By 1953 both superpowers had created hydrogen bombs - the USA were more powerful
  • In 1955 the USSR had developed and tested 'Sakharov's Third Idea' which was as powerful as America's hydrogen bombs
  • All these bombs required modified aircrafts to attack enemy territory
  • In 1955 USA had created B52 Stratofortress (long-range flight capacity to bomb USSR)
  • The USSR were creating a similar military aircraft called the TU20 Bear
  • The arms race was significant as it prevented war in Europe - USSR was stronger than West Germany, they feared nuclear retaliation from the USA
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De-Stalinisation (1953)

  • Stalin had claimed to liberate Hungary from the Nazis
  • Cominform imposed an oppressive regime on Hungary
  • Land was redistributed to other Eastern European countries
  • Matyas Rakosi was appointed as the Hungarian dictator
  • Non-communist parties were abolished
  • Russian officials controlled army, police and government
  • Rakosi was nicknamed 'Stalin's best pupil', but knows as 'the bald butcher' due to 'salami tactics' - he got rid of opposition by dividing it bit by bit
  • Repsonsible for more than 2000 deaths, and 387,000 people imprisoned
  • Stalin died in 1953, seeing his oppressive regime 'Stalinism' ended (de-stalinisation)
  • Nikita Khrushchev replaced him promising an 'end to Stalinism throughout the entire Soviet sphere of influence' - he said this in his 1956 secret speech
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Imre Nagy's Reforms (1953-1956)

  • 1945 Minister of Agriculture who set up collectivisation (land reforms) led him to be excluded from the communist party in 1949 - reclaimed place as he said he supported the USSR
  • Nagy replaced Rakosi as Prime Minister between 1953 to 1955 - Rakosi still had most control as Party Secretary
  • 1955 Nagy thrown out and replaced by Rakosi
  • 1956 Rakosi forced out due to lack of reform promised in 'Secret Speech'
  • 23rd of October 1956 there were Budapest riots due to fuel and bread shortages - conflict between army and workers
  • Khrushchev re-instated Nagy as Prime Minister, withdrew Red Army from Hungary
  • Nagy's propsed reforms said that Hungary should leave the Warsaw Pact and UN to recognise them as neutral country - this meant that Soviets entering Hungary would be breaking UN laws, and therefore they would have to intervene - USSR didn't take notice
  • Reforms split the government, Janos Kadar (a USSR supporter) created a rival government in Eastern Hungary
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Soviet Invasion of Hungary (1956)

  • 4th November 1956, 200,000 Soviet troops and 1000 tanks entered Budapest in support of Kadar's government
  • They fought for two weeks with Nagy's reformers
  • About 2500 were killed and 200,000 fled to the West
  • Nagy was executed (June 1958) - Khrushchev said it was 'a lesson to the leaders of all socialist countries'
  • America offered aid worth $20 million to Hungary, 80,000 refugees moved to the USA
  • Eisenhower commended the resilience of the Hungarian people
  • Kadar's 15 point plan set out the new government's direction, under relative control of the Soviet army
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