Edexcel A geography

  • Created by: kesithan3
  • Created on: 16-03-19 16:24


Biomes - A large scale ecosystem

Example of an biome -

Desert - The climate is very hot , very less rainfall

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TRF Biodiversty and Adaptations

High Biodiversty - Long hours of sunlight are excellent for photosynthesis

Animal Adaptations

Monkeys - have strong gripping hands and long tails for balance to help them find food

Sloths - uses camoflague and moves slowly so then they wont get caught

Plant Adaptations

Drip tip leaves - allows water to run off and prevent the leaves rotting

Buttress Roots - Helps to support and make the trees stable

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TRF - Climate Change

Biodiversty -

Climate change could threaten the survial of species who are adapted to have rainfall and reduce biodiversty .

Drier condtions could stop from cloud functioning and reduce the water avaliable for growth leading to loss of biodiversty


Long period of direr condtions therefore will  , reduce the biomass store meaning that there will be less nutrients for the canopy

Long period of drier condtions - Make foreset more vuerable to fires  ,which will destroy the structure of the forest

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TRF - Causes of deforestation

Rising Population Growth - Trees are cut down to make new  houses for people and this lead to loss of biodiversty

Resource Extraction - Timber for logging as trees were cut down for selling and many money was used to improve services

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TRF - Management

Direct Government Action - Where the government decided to pay landowners 50 dollors per year to protect the tropical rainforest and it was happening at a rapid rate 

Ecotourism - Tourist come and learn about the enviroment through activites such as hiking . These actives provide jobs for local people who previously were farmers deforesting land to grow crops .

Selling Carbon Credits - Wealthy Countries buy these to offset the emissions they producw and this generates a lot of moneyand there is then no need for  without cutting tress

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TRF - Threats


Population Pressure

Lead to loss of biodiversty due to clearing of habitats and Contribution of global warming due to carbon dixode being realsed as the trees are being cut down

Climate Change

Impact on speices - Direr Condtions could kill species and bring in new spcies

Prevent Cloud functioning - Reduce the water avaliable for the functioning of ecosystem

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Urbanzation - Changing Cites

Causes of Urbanzation

Better Jobs - better standard of living for people

Impacts of Migration

Overcrowding , Increased competion of jobs

Key words

Urbanzation - Increasing Propotion of people living in cites

Counter Urbanzation - Movement of people in cites to countryside

Re-Urbanzation - movement of people back to urban areas

Sub - Urbanzation - Growth of town into the surrounding village

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Deindurazaltion- Changing Cites

Evidence of Deindurzalition

Deserted- no indurstal activity  , Negletced , No people , Griffti

Impact of deindurazaion

No Jobs 

Causes of deindurazation

Globalisation means that goods can be cheaper around so the industry closes as people can get the same thing for less in different countries

Growing Populations - More land is used for settlements rather than factroies so they close to make more space for urban areas

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CBD - Changing Cites

Changes in CBD

Internet Shopping - Reduction in people vist shops to reduce which led to clousre in business and decline in CBD

Out of town Shopping centre - Parking is for free and attract more coustemer led to decline in CBD . 

CBD : Information Centre , Stations

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Rapid Urbanzation - Changing Cites

Sao Paulo has very bad traffic and congestion  meaning that a lot of pollution is
created this leads to increasing impacts of climate change due to greenhouse gas

Unemployment and rising informal economy - Not enough jobs for imigrants and informal economy has risen but no tax is paid leading to less money investing in services

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Top - down Project - Changing Cites

Cingupura Housing Project - New homes were bulit , managing favelas in the city

Advantages - 

All houses had clean water and proper sanitation and new houses were bulit in the same area so there was no need for residents to move somewhere else


Pay 26 dollars per month and many resdients cant afford for this and only bulit 14,000 homes of the 10000 target

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Bottom Up Project -Changing Cites

Self help scheme in Santo Andre and aimed to improve infrasture and sercices


The improvements are not just housing but to help people quality of life and the community is included in the decsions that are made


Takes a long time to implement , with so many different people involved , it is hard to get agreement on how the money avaliable should be spent

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Development - Global Development

Development - A process of change which affect people standard of living

Measuring Development

Gross Domestic Product - Total value of goods and services produced by a country per year

HDI - Measures the life expectancy , mean years of scholing , GNI per capita

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Chlorpeath Map


An advantage is that they are very easy to understand and show spatial distributions of data quite well.

Visually effective - can see a large amount of information and general patterns


Incorrectly suggests an abrupt change at the boundaries of shaded areas  because the map does not show total/exact values
Average values hide variations within one area  so it is impossible to see variations/extremes/patterns within one area

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Top down Project

Top down Project - Development project run by government on a large scale

Large-scale government investment and political support/will (1) has the potential to affect positively the lives of a large number of people (1). 
The local economy could be improved  so there are more funds available to spend on healthcare, education and training 


High  costs ,  which could lead to government debt/the diversion of spending from education/healthcare to pay off the debt
Government/politicians are sometimes removed from local people/needs are often ignoredso they do not benefit in terms of economic and social development 

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Bottom Up Project

Bottom Up Project : run by the local 


It is run by local people so its likely to acheive its development objective as they decide what happens


The country will develop more slowly because of the size of the project.

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Population pyramid

Decrease in Birth Rates

More avaliable conteption , Decrease in fertility rates

Why the population structure changed in the last 30 years

Birth rate has decreased  due to wider availability of contraception 
Death rates have decreased  as there is better health care 

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Impact of the private investment by TNC

Postive Impacts

Many new jobs are created which have high salaries

Better Working Condtions as they are tertiary jobs 

Employess are invested in with eduaction and training which provides them with skills which they can use in life

Negative Impacts

Many secondary workers are exploites with low pay , poor condtion meaning that tesco are able to make big profit

India can be reliant on Tesco as a source of jobs to the economy

Tesco foot lose meaning that it could always move to a cheaper country whenever wanted meaning that India doesnt have economic sustanability

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