Economic Change

Key Terms

Primary - Extractin of raw materials from ground or sea .eg mining - farming -fishing- forestry

 Secondary _ the process of manufacturing of goods using raw materials from prmart industry eg makinf paper from wood

Tertiary - doing a service eg teachers- solicitors - sales assistants & cleaners

Answer pie chart question page 82

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Economic Factors of HIC s & LIC s

Justify how u wud know Germany is a HIC s & Mali is a LIC . Use evidence in your answer  

HIC typically have a large tertiary sector because they have many service industries , Mali is a LIC because the country is poor so most people are still employed in argriculture& raw material extraction 

Give reas for changes shwn in fig 2

Raw materials mined in UK have run out . caused by a decline in the mining Industry . Primary industry jobs such as farming are seen as hard work. There are more service  industries as the population as become wealthy

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Reasons for the decline in n'os employed in Primar

  • Depletion of Raw materials eg coal mining 
  • Cheap imports  - raw materials used in Secondary indust are imported from abroad - cheaper to important them -UK RAW MATERIALS ARE DEEP UNDER GROUND  
  • mECHANISATION -Fewer workers needed - machines eg
  • potato picking - animals fed & watered automatically.
  • Chickens reared in sheds 9 computers determine when they r fed )
  • Fishing Boats - have computers to aid fish finding & to work the nets for the catch
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Government attitudes

Why d government attitudes towards the value of primary  industry differ Depends if the countrys economy is based on Primary Indust .. Mayb farming , fishing or mining. government will value the industry because its their their maun source of income . in many HIC s in west primary industries ie farming mayb valued to feed their poulations but the mAin sector of industry is TERTIARY . eg in SAUDIA Arabia  they have lots of Primary resources that they value ie OIL


  •  RAW MATERIALS - MINED RAN OUT= Caused dcline in mining industry Eg Coal
  • Primary indust jobs eg FARMING - SEEN to be 2 hard work
  • Mechanisation - increas use of machinery in secondary sector decreases the no people needed EG Car industry people involved in all parts of production line EG HONDA sWINDON ROBOTS INVOLVEDIN PROD LINE  IE PAINT CARS
  • LIC S & Mic s can be produced more cheaply - low paid workers &land is cheap. Fewer regulations in LICs - Governments not worried re enviro  impacts money not spent on waste disposal & processing i
  • Gobal communication net allows bussiness to communicate
  • OWNERS of companies cud be in 1 country - goods produced in another
  • improvements in transportation - goods cam b moved around worl quickly & effeiciently
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Government attitudes

Why do government attitudes towards the value of secondary industry differ.

  • Governments views vary & change from place to place & time
  • In HIC s Secondary Sect has declined with manufactoring done abroad in MIC s .
  • Wheresas China is trying t grow their secondary indust eg- Rich coal resources
  • Whiklst UK concentrates on Tertiary industry - see s this as more important sector ie London centre of Finance - Development GOOGLE at St prancres station  
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CASE STUDY - China - Secondary Industry growth

Reasons for growth - Secondary industry  CHINA

  • H =Government Policy- originally allindust owned by govern now 20% are privately owed / investors workldwide
  • H=infrastructure - new roads - improve transportation network
  • H Education - work force largely unskilled - next 20 yrs 500,000 mill people will leave countryside to work in cities
  • H=H&S RELAXED-means goods can b produced cheaply
  • low wages- work for less than other countries ie UK
  • Raw materials- alot of nat resources ie COAL -oil nat gas
  • Trade Coastline - major ports on trade routes
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Effects of China s Secondary Sect GROWTH

EFFECTS of China Growth


  • Jobs in Urban areas = Means higher living standards
  • Low paid work - Some work for 40p per hr


  • Affordable New Homes - in Urban areas people moving from shanty towns
  • Lack of young strong workers in Rural Areas - gone to work in Urban Areas

Environmental Government spent

  • $172 bill on protecting environment
  • 90%of underground water in urban areas is polluted
  • EG Linfen - pollution due to burning coal to produce energyl
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Reasons for GROWTH Tertiary Sector - UK since 197

Expain the Factors which have caused Growth in Tertiary Sector

Increase in Services linked to disposable income The money that the average household had to spend on non-essential items doubled  between 1987 &2006 . this has led to rise in demand for services eg beauticians - health clubs ie yr  2000 4 mill people members of gym 2012 6 mill

New Technology  Development Employment in Telecommunications services ie Internet Banking . Shops selling moblle phones & computers commonon high st . People work in CAll Centres 350,000 in 2000 in 2008 950,000

Demographic changes - women having children later (29yrs)more time/money spent socialising . Ageing.  population in UK 35 % of pop over 50 yrs 20% over 65 yrs . Spending of wealthy retired people is known as 'grey pound'( spends holidays - gardening - grandchildren )

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How growth in Health club memb cause tertiary sec

nb = More members in health clubs - more people needed to b employed as fitness trainers / receptionists cleaners  etc

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key terms

raw materials - resources used to make useful products

mechanisation - use of machinery instead of people to do jobs

globalisation- the growing economic interdependency of countries worlwide

global superhighway - the internet

disposable income- money left over each month from wage after all essentials paid

beautician- person providing treatments such as facials massages

new technologies- invention of internet & mobile phones

call centres -offices where people answer phonesto deal with complaints or take orders for goods

grey pound - money spent by retired people

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Economic Locations

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