- Created by: PhilippaCarew
- Created on: 21-01-20 09:06
Measures of War Communism
-Grain Requisitioning: Socialisation of Land Decree 1917
Food Supplies Dictatoriship May 1918
Kulak's worst hit
-Labour Discipline and Rationing: Strikes forbidden, hours extended, ration workbooks issued.
Rationing based of class.
Strict checks on movement, internal passport system.
-Nationalisation: Professional managers employed by state
May 1918: Sugar first fully industrialised
Nov: nearly all
workers lost freedom as worker's soviets abolished
Lenin relied on coercion for support
extreme use of Terror on civillians and political opposition to enforce policies
Assasination attempt 1918 wounded Lenin gave excuse for Cheka to start red terror
Shot 1/2 mil enemies between 1918 and 1920- SRs and Mensheviks
Also used to carry out class warfare- those guilty of 'counter revolution'
Concentration and labour camps set up
Tambov revolt 1920-21
famine in 1921
155 uprisings in Feb 1921
300 miles south east of Moscow- CLOSE THREAT
70,000 man peasant army led by Alexander Antonov
Caused by arrival of Grain Requisitioning squad
100,000 Red Army troops deployed
1922- RA troops arrived, destoryed villages and forests and used poison gas
Kronstadt Rising 1921
30,000 Soldiers at Naval Base
'soviets without Bolshevikes'
Lenin-'flash that lit up reality'
1/3 bread ration in cities
Marital Law declared Jan 1921- Cheka used to crush revolt
Tukhachevsky shot ringleaders- 15,000 rebels taken prisoner
Caused division in party- worker's opposition led by Alexandra Kollantai
New Economic Policy intro
Lenin didn't permit vote- knew it would be unpopular
supported by Zinoviev and Bukharin at tenth party congress
'temporary retreat' compared to Treaty of Brest Litovsk
rank and file Bolsheviks opposed ideologically- more capitalist that War Commuism
New Economic Policy measures
End Grain Requisitioning:
No forcible collectivisation
Ban on private trade lifted
State continued to control large scale industry, small businesses went back into private hands
Rationing ended- workers now paid wages
Economic impact of NEP
Got economy moving again
25,000 Nepmen in Moscow in 1925
Agriculture recovered and Kulak class reemerged
Industrial production recovered slowly
Imbalance in 1923 caused 'Scissor Crisis' recovered by 1926 due to introduction of Peasant Tax
-Didn't solve backwards economic problems in Russia but much more stable by Lenin's death in 1924
Political impact of NEP
Made Lenin more paranoid, government less democratic: Ban on Factions 1921
1922 Cheka renamed GPU and given powers to arrest and murder
Nomenklatura system introduced to ensure party loyalty
treated as only a 'temporary deviation'
renamed 'New Exploitation of Proletariat'
1922 criticism of government forbidden GLAVIT
Union of Militant Godless