Economic and social developments


Measures of War Communism

-Grain Requisitioning: Socialisation of Land Decree 1917

Food Supplies Dictatoriship May 1918 

Kulak's worst hit

-Labour Discipline and Rationing: Strikes forbidden, hours extended, ration workbooks issued.

Rationing based of class. 

Strict checks on movement, internal passport system. 

-Nationalisation: Professional managers employed by state

May 1918: Sugar first fully industrialised

June: Oil

Nov: nearly all

workers lost freedom as worker's soviets abolished

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Red Terror

Lenin relied on coercion for support

extreme use of Terror on civillians and political opposition to enforce policies

Assasination attempt 1918 wounded Lenin gave excuse for Cheka to start red terror

Shot 1/2 mil enemies between 1918 and 1920- SRs and Mensheviks

Also used to carry out class warfare- those guilty of 'counter revolution'

Concentration and labour camps set up

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Tambov revolt 1920-21

famine in 1921

155 uprisings in Feb 1921

300 miles south east of Moscow- CLOSE THREAT

70,000 man peasant army led by Alexander Antonov

Caused by arrival of Grain Requisitioning squad

100,000 Red Army troops deployed

1922- RA troops arrived, destoryed villages and forests and used poison gas

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Kronstadt Rising 1921

30,000 Soldiers at Naval Base

'soviets without Bolshevikes' 

Lenin-'flash that lit up reality'

1/3 bread ration in cities

Marital Law declared Jan 1921- Cheka used to crush revolt

Tukhachevsky shot ringleaders- 15,000 rebels taken prisoner

Caused division in party- worker's opposition led by Alexandra Kollantai

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New Economic Policy intro

Lenin didn't permit vote- knew it would be unpopular

supported by Zinoviev and Bukharin at tenth party congress

'temporary retreat' compared to Treaty of Brest Litovsk

rank and file Bolsheviks opposed ideologically- more capitalist that War Commuism

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New Economic Policy measures

End Grain Requisitioning:

No forcible collectivisation

Ban on private trade lifted

State continued to control large scale industry, small businesses went back into private hands

Rationing ended- workers now paid wages

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Economic impact of NEP

Got economy moving again

25,000 Nepmen in Moscow in 1925

Agriculture recovered and Kulak class reemerged

Industrial production recovered slowly

Imbalance in 1923 caused 'Scissor Crisis' recovered by 1926 due to introduction of Peasant Tax

-Didn't solve backwards economic problems in Russia but much more stable by Lenin's death in 1924

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Political impact of NEP

Made Lenin more paranoid, government less democratic: Ban on Factions 1921

1922 Cheka renamed GPU and given powers to arrest and murder

Nomenklatura system introduced to ensure party loyalty

treated as only a 'temporary deviation'

renamed 'New Exploitation of Proletariat'

1922 criticism of government forbidden GLAVIT

Union of Militant Godless

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