Eco Cities (sustainable communities)

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Criteria

  • Operates on a self-contained economy -> resources needed are found locally rather than nationally/globally. It supports local agriculture and business
  • Completely carbon-neutral and renewable energy production -> uses solar, wind, geothermal, bioenergy or HEP
  • A Well-planned city layout and public transportation system -> priorities methods of transportation as follows:- walking, cycling and then public transport
  • Practices resource conservation -> maximises efficiency of land, water and energy resources; constructs a waste management system that can recycle waste and reuse it, creating a zero waste system
  • Restores environmentally damaged urban areas -> cleans rivers, decontaminates soil and improves air quality
  • Ensures decent and affordable housing -> housing that ranges in prices to buy and rent. These are all equipped with the basic amentiies which provide a good livng standard
  • Improves Job Opportunities -> ensures equal opportunities for all socio-economic  and ethnic groups and for disadvantaged groups, such as single parent families, minorities and the disabled
  • Promotes voluntary simplicity in lifestyle choices -> decreases material consumption and increases awareness of environmental and sustainability issues
  • Designed so that it is able to grow and evolve -> as the needs of the population change, water systems and power lines etc are built in such a way so that they are easy to modernise
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Tianjin Ecocity and Masdar, Abu Dhabi

...a model for future development which is expected to be refined

  • A livable, efficient compact city (350,000 in 30km2)
  • Everything in reach of walking or no emission public transport
  • $7billion of capital investment  in the city already
  • Passive building design - building orientation to maximise natural light and ventilation
  • Comprimises for economic viability - 20% renewable energy and 90% hybrid/electric buses
  • Cost doesn't rise above what business can support
  • Aim to change mentality
  • Close proximit of work and play
  • Relatively cheap despite technology

Abu Dhabi:

  • powered by renewable energy - solar panels over 22ha
  • 40,000 people
  • use research, pilot the scheme and then commercialise the optimum technology
  • passive building - shade created, widns captured foor cooling (10dcd lower than Abu Dhabi
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Ecopolis

Ecological Footprint - a summary of environmental impact of urban growth. Cities use the environment to source raw materials, energy, water and food while also generating wastes like greenhouse gases, sewage and discharging them into the environement.  The greater the scale of these proceses, the more acute their degrading effects

The environmental impact of China's industrialisation and urbanisation:

  • Acute pressure on land, energy, wildife and natural resources
  • Air pollution
  • Particulate and Sulphur dioxide cause smog, acid rain and dry deposition
  • Nitrogen oxide adn ozone create photochemical smogs
  • Pollution of rivers and lakes by effluent, agricultural run off and untreated sewage

Reasons:

  • hundreds of coal-fired power plants and large concentrations of heavy industry
  • causing respiratory disease/ heart diseases and lung cancer
  • 3.6million vehicles on the roads
  • insufficient sewage plants can't cope with the levels of sewage generated by the city
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Making Dongtan a Sustainable Ecocity:

  • zero waste and energy will come from wind, solar and biofuels
  • green building technologies reduce the demand for heat/cooling
  • grass on rooftops
  • rainwater will be collected, treated and stored
  • residential areas separated by forests and lakes etc
  • compact so residents can cycle/walk everywhere
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