Earthquakes + Tsunamis

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Tohoku (Tsunami) - 11th March 2011

Exacerbation/Synopticity

  • Japans meteorological agency sent out a warning of a much smaller tsunami than expected
    • Only 58% of people in Fukushima and Miyagi headed for higher ground
  • Deeper water in bays meant that the tsunami travelled quicker, giving less response time
  • Those in Miyako trusted the walls, the subsistence of the ground caused lots of deaths
  • In Ofunato, the ground subsided by 1metre, they were soon expecting high tides as well
  • Tsunamis worse in built up urban areas as the water gets funnelled through the streets
  • Those who had survived the tsunami would not neccessarily survive the cold weather
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Tohoku (Tsunami) - 11th March 2011 - Responses

  • Tsunami warnings were sent out
    • People in Tokyo received a minute early warning before the shaking
    • TV warnings immediately shown
    • Miyako were very prepared
      • Often had practice warnings, 10metre high sea walls
  • Geologists and vulcanologists wers soon out to observe what had happened
  • Many were evacuated from buildings wearing hard hats etc
  • Fukushima was automatically shut down
    • It was still hot, so to cool it down it had to run on backup generators, destroyed by tsunami
  • Evacuation orders for those living in the vicinity of two separate nuclear power plants
  • Rescuers searched for those in the rubble
    • Found 870 people in a elementary school
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Nepal - April/May 2015

The Earthquake

  • The main earthquake hit on 25th April 2015
    • Magnitude 7.8
    • 15km deep
    • Epicentre - Barpak, Gorkha
  • Nepal was then hit by 120 aftershocks
    • The largest came on 12th May 2015
      • Magnitude 7.3
  • Created by the Indian plate subducting beneath the Eurasian plate

Synopticity/Exacerbation

  • Many houses made from traditional, weak materials
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Nepal - April/May 2015 - Effects

Social Effects

  • 8622 died
  • 450 000 displaced after homes destroyed
    • 800 home destroyed in village of Fakhel (poor building quality)
  • Young female survivors were preyed upon by human traffickers
  • Many historical temples and monuments detsroyed
    • Darahara tower destroyed - built in 1832
  • 7500+ schools destroyed
    • Many children out of education for months
  • 1100 health facilities destroyed
  • Electricity cut off in areas near the epicentre

Environmental Effects

  • Triggered avalanches upt o 3km wide
    • Wiped out the village of Langtang
  • Affected 39 districts
  • Mount Everest moved 3cm southwest
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Nepal - April/May 2015 - Effects

Economic Effects

  • 100 000+ cattle lost
  • Many tourists put off from visiting
    • Tourism accounted for 8% of the Nepalese economy
  • Expected to push nearly 1 million below the poverty line
  • Little time to replant crops before the monsoon
  • $10 billion in economic losses

Responses

  • UK gave more than £70 million in aid
  • Search and Rescue teams sent to look for survivors
    • 'Searcha nd Rescue Assistance in Disasters' team sent experts with 1.5 tonnes of specialist equipment
  • 15 000 tons of food dispatched
  • Temporary camps set up (One in Lainchaur)
  • 48 international medical teams
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Tohoku (Tsunami) - 11th March 2011 - Effects

Environmental

  • Coastline sunk by 1m in some areas
    • Miyako's sea walls should have been high enough but the sinking of the earth meant they were flooded badly
  • Liquefaction occuring
  • Lots of fires overnight
    • Fire at the refinery, plume of thick blakc smoke
  • Surge affected mountain communities
    • Small comunity had a salt lake instead of a small river, killed fish
  • Radiation released from Fukushima Daiichi
    • Small amounts of radiation in seawater
    • Small amounts of radiation on the coast of North America and Canada
  • The surge of water carried 5 million tons of debris out to sea
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Tohoku (Tsunami) - 11th March 2011 - Effects

Social

  • 15 600 people died
  • Temporary shelters filling up in Sendai
  • Rebuilding will take generations
  • (Hawaii issued evacuation warning) 7 foot waves in Hawaii
  • 2500+ missing
  • Caused a system failure a Fukushima Daiichi
  • Power and mobile recpetion remained down
  • No electricity and no water for those people in shelters

Economic

  • Airport in Sendai flooded by tsunami, was only 4 years old
  • Farm land in Sendai flooded, crops destroyed
  • Most buildings in Ofunato destroyed
  • Total damages at $300 billion
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Haiti - 12th Jan 2010 - Effects and Responses

Economic Effects

  • Borrowed money for rebuilding needs paying back - will take years
  • Houses have to be built earthquake proof

Short Term Responses

  • UN mobilised an emergency response team to coordinate relief efforts
  • The World Bank provided $100 million to support recovery
  • WHO sent a 12 member team of healty experts
  • International Atomic Energy Agency sent 8 mobile x-ray machines
  • Iceland sent 37 search and response specialists, UK sent 71 fire fighters

Long Term Resonses

  • Reduce reliance of food imports - rebuild Haitis agricultural capacity
  • Don't have the abilities to teach specialist subjects - lack of facilities
  • Reduce reliance on charcoal - Increase energy availability - increase quality of life
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Haiti - 12th Jan 2010 - After the earthquake

1 year later

  • Still lots of remaining rubble
  • 1000's still living in tents (Tent City)
  • Some still haven't recieved aid
  • Orphanage in Carrefoure - lots of children still living in tents - Running out of food
  • 500 000 orphans after earthquake

 5 years later

  • 70 000 still living in tents
  • Some still don't have a water supply
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Haiti - 12th Jan 2010 - Effects and Responses

Social Effects

  • Severe lack of food
  • Lack of medical aid for the injured
  • Clean water issues - Malaria, Dengue Fever
  • Disease and illness spread fast
  • About 3 million affected from loss of homes - 1.5 million living in tents
  • Cholera epidemic - 2500 died from it
  • 100 000 - 316 000 killed (allegations that Haitian government claimed was higher to get more aid)

Environmental Effect

  • Water supply damaged - no clean drinking water or washing water
  • Trash filled beaches, polluted waterways, dead fish
  • Nearly all ports and roads either destroyed or closed
  • Fire made rescue missions harder
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Haiti - 12th January 2010

Earthquake Background

  • 4.53pm, 12th Jan 2010
  • Lasted 35-60 seconds
  • Epicentre 10 miles southwest of the capital
  • Fault line runs straight through Haiti
  • Situated between Caribbean and North American plate
  • Magnitude 7 earthquake
  • Focus 6.2 miles below surface

Synopticity (exacerbation)

  • Hurricane two years earlier
  • 4/5 Haitians lived in poverty before the earthquake
  • Aid not managed properly, money not properly distributed
  • When the cholera first came, they didn't know what to do, they hadn't seen it before
  • Long term effects hampered by political turmoil
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Christchurch - Feb 2011

Date: 22nd February 2011

Time: 12:51 pm

Magnitude: 6.3

Population of Christchurch: 360,000

Deaths: 191 confirmed

Depth of earthquake: 5km (very shallow)

Immediate Effects-

  • Mobile phone network down
  • People were prepared and were soon out in high-vis jackets
  • Roads blocked due to falling buildings
  • Hospital cleared beds to create space for new patients
  • Cathedral spire collapsed, PGG building concertinaed
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Tohoku (Tsunami) - 11th March 2011

The Earthquake + Tsunami

  • Magnitude 9 earthquake hit northeast Japan at 2:46
  • 100km off the east coast
  • The Pacific plate subducted under the Eurasian plate, the Euarsian plate bounced back
  • Earthquake lasted 5 minutes (long earthquake)
  • The Tsunami arrived 100seconds after the earthquake struck
  • It hit Ofunato first
    • Situated behind a deep bay, the wave travelled quicker so it was hit first
  • Sendai was hit second
    • Sendai has very flat farming land, airport, water travelled long distances
  • Miyako hit third
    • Miyako had a 10metre high sea wall that was engulfed by the wave
  • A giant whirlpool was generated near Oarai
  • Many lives were saved by Japans extensive preparedness
  • 40% of Japans coastline has seawalls up to 10metres high
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Indian Ocean (Tsunami) - Dec 2004

The Earthquake

  • 26th December 2004
  • Magnitude 9 earthquake
  • Epicentre off the western coast of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Convergent plate boundary, Indo-Australian plate subducting beneath the Eurasian
  • Focus 30 km below sea level
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Indian Ocean (Tsunami) - Dec 2004 - Effects

Social Effects

  • Loss of people (doctors, teachers etc) made it harder to find survivors
  • Most survivors were living in refugee camps
  • Many children were traumatised by what they had seen
  • 280 000 died or lost

Environmental Effects

  • On Maikhao beach in northern Phuket in Thailand, the sea receded before the tsunami came
  • Many trees uprooted
  • Drinking water contaminated by saltwater, sewage and decaying corpses

Economic Effects

  • Only 6 out of 60 fishing boats from Amphur Khao remained in tact
  • Roads and rail links were cut off
  • Farmland contaminated with salt water - rice, mango and banana plantations destroyed
  • Tourist industry effected
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Indian Ocean (Tsunami) - Dec 2004 - Responses

Responses

  • UK government gave £75 million
  • NGO's like Save the Children and Church World Service gave tarpaulins, tents, water purification tablets, portable generators and food
  • Medical and science teams from UK and Australia helping those with psychological damage and physcial damage
    • Also attempting to reunite infants with families by DNA tests
  • In Jan 2005, the UN announced a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean
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