Early Cold War - 4 marks

  • Created by: TaniaXian
  • Created on: 29-05-19 12:57

End of WWII - The Situation

Germany loses and is split between Allies

Europe is left nearly bankrupt

USA and USSR are left as the strongest and richest countries (SUPERPOWERS)

Tension and mistrust start to build again

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Ideological Differences

USA = Capitalist

  • USSR = Communist a

USA = private industry

  • USSR  = nationalised industry a

USA = extreme wealth differences

  • USSR = equal wealth a

USA = freedom of expression

  • USSR = very censored and restricted
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The Yalta Conference

February 1945

3 Allied Leaders = F.D.Roosevelt, W.Churchill, J.Stalin

Decisions:

  • Free elections for occupied countries
  • Germany split into USA, French, British, USSR zones
  • UN to be created
  • E Europe under Soviet sphere of influence

Disagreements:

  • Changing USSR border to enter Poland
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The Potsdam Conference

July 1945 - After WWII ends

New Allied Leaders = H.Truman, C.Atlee, J.STalin

Disagreements:

  • Treatment of Germany - Stalin wanted to cripple
  • Reparations - Stalin wanted compensation but Truman did not want to repeat ToV
  • Soviet Sphere of Influence over E Europe - Had been decided at Yalta but Truman did not like Stalin's intentions
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What had changed?

Roosevelt died

Truman was much more anti-Communist and suspicious of Stalin

USA tested A-bomb - told Atlee but not Stalin = INCREASED SUSPICION

Stalin still occupied E Europe (Red Army) - Western Allies could nto stop them taking control

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The Truman Doctrine

Introduced March 1947

Idea of Harry Truman, POTUS

Pledged military and economic support to countries threatened by Communism

Fighting for Democratic Freedom - POLICY OF CONTAINMENT

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The Marshall Plan/Marshall Aid

Introduced December 1947

Pledged $13bn to be given to European countries to help rebuild

Encouraged prosperity to weaken attraction of Communism

To qualify, European countries had to agree to trade freely with America

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Cominform

The Communist Information Bureau

Set up in 1947

Sent Communist government of E Europe Stalin's instructions

HQ moved to Bucharest, Romania in 1948 after Yugoslavia was expelled (when Tito agreed to Marshall AId)

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Comecon

The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

Set up in 1949

Co-ordinated the industries and trade of E Europe

Provided USSR with a market for goods and cheap supply of raw materials

Set up a bank for Socialist Countries in 1964

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The Berlin Blockade

Stalin blocked West Berlin's supply roads when he saw that it was prospering and East Berlin was not

This threatened the Capitalism of West Berlin so American came in with aid

From June 1948, one plane every few minutes supplied West Berlin with supplies

In May 1949, Stalin reopened communications

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The Consequence of the Berlin Blockade

NATO was set up - WESTERN ALLIES

The Warsaw Pact was set up - USSR AND SATELLITE STATES

Relations between Germany and the Western Allies improved

Berlin becae a symbol of Cold War tension

Germany remained a divided country for 41 years

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