- Created by: noonoo2001
- Created on: 08-04-19 17:31
Somerset and France
- Calais/Boulogne/Newhaven defenses strengthened
- Eng fleet sent to patrol Eng channel
- Tried to negoitate with Fr for a defensive alliance - isolate Scot
- FI dies. H2 - more aggressive - no hope of comprise with the Fr
- HII renewes Scot alliance
- June 1547 sends fleet of warships + 4,000 trps to Scot
- S has to intervene directly in Scottish affairs - pretext of arranging the marriage
- Eng/Fr privateers attack shipping in Eng Channel/N sea
- Fr begin to build up forces around Boulogne
- S eventually conviniced Fr will not attack Boulogne, out of fear it will push HRE into war
- Sends 12,000 infantry + 1,800 cavalry to besiege Haddington Castle
- S - unwilling to leave Ldn + worried about Fr build up around Boulogne - indecisive - anger PC
- Eng negotiate with Fr - sn appear war will break out + Fr was going to intervne.
- Aug - S forced to withdraw trps from N + recall Eng fleet from Channel against a poss Fr attack
- Fr decide war in Scot = to costly. Redeploy forces on Boulgone.
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S + Scot
- Sept 10th 1547 - Battle of Pinkie
- Scots cut to pieces by Eng cannon/cavalry + S able to occupy all main border strongholds + Eng control of border
- Sept 1647 = joint naval/land invasion of Scot launched - invaded Scot with 16,000 infantry + 4,000 mercenary + well supplied with cannon and upported by sea by a fleet of 30 warships.
- Lord Arran raised a Scot army of 20,000 - poorly equipped
- Domestic affaris - S preoccupied with - left Scot with bulk of his army on 18th Sept
- Defeat united Scot nobles + supported Mary Guise in opp to Eng. Scot council meet at Stirling + decide to ask Fr for more help
- June - Fr fleet with 10,000 trps land in Scot + MQofS taken to Fr to be educ
- Rebellions in Eng. S unwilling to withdraw border garrisons - allowed sit in Eng to get out of control.
- Recall of trps from N - Haddington abandoned + other Eng strongholds in Scot
- Lose Fr support - too costly. Scot too weak to launch any major attack on N of Eng
- S in Ldn + pre-occupied with domesitc affairs. Main base in Scot - Carlisle/Berwick/Haddington Castle - strengthened but unable to maintain control. Haddington besieged by Fr/Scot forces.
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S policy of building a series of fortress along th
- Far too long to implement
- Depended on two factors beyond his control:
- Capture of Edinburgh - never occured
- Preventing of aid arriving from Fr - failed
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S - blockade of the Firth of Forth - Scot
- Failed to keep Fr navy out
- S failed to find accord with pro-Eng Scot faction (or what passed for one)
- S had no real domestic powerbase outside the Eng military
- Fr move trps in + set up own fortresses + smuggle MQofS out - last one meant S main objective = failed
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S joint land/naval invasion of Scot - more detail
- HII renews F-S alliance + sends 4000 trps
- S launches invasion of Scot
- Trps under his own auth + John Dudley (E of Warwick) + William Dacre (3rd Baron Dacre) - commanding the infantry.
- 16,000 trps march N from Berwick
- Cavalry placed under Will Grey, 13th Baron Grey de Wilton - experienced campaigner
- 4,000 mercenaries were hired
- 30 warships - under Edward Finnes de Clinton - experienced campaginer under H8/S on the Scot front.
- Sir Thomas Warton raided N from Carisle - 2,00 men + 50 cavalry + aided by Scot nobleman, Matthew Stuart, E of Lennox (who wanted to re-estb his place in Scot succession - exiled by enemies around the crown) - diversionary tactic - successful.
- Battle of Pinkie.
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Impact of Battle of Pinkie
- S forces occupied all of the border strongholds
- Grey left in Berwick as gov + Warden of the East Marches + General of the N parts
- Border secure
- S could do no more - strongholds = vulnerable to Scot harassment raids - draining the Eng treasury + adding nothing tangible.
- S didn't have the option to withdraw - warlike tendencies of the Eng nobility/his fellow councillors.
- Would have been financially distarous at this point
- Sends in 3 more armies - Aug 1548, Jan 1549 and June 1549
- Defends the gains made + pursue fulfilment of the marriage treaty
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War with Fr - more detail
- F-S ties
- MQofS to marry HII son, Francois - did occur
- Forced S hand - threats being made against Eng possession in Fr
- Build up Eng naval op in N Sea + Channel regions + keep up Scot occupation
- Scot front - Wharton remained posted on the W March in Carlisle + Grey in Berwick
- 12,00 Eng trps + 1,800 cavalry dispatched - react against increased F-S aggression
- 2 yrs before S could turn his attentions to Fr + unable to react effectively to events.
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Why could S not react effectivley?
- S-F forces in Scot = drain on his time/efforts/resources
- Uprising in Eng 1549 = collapse on his reign
- Recalled trps from the Scot border
- Reversal there of prev gains
- If S had been able to delegate better - might have been able to extricate himself from Scot sooner + prevent the invetiable loss of Boulogne.
- H8 last wishes - reluctance of the peers of the realm to abandon the terms of the T of Greenwich
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Foregin sit at end of S regime
- War on 2 fronts - no apparenet reason
- No hope of reason from a contiental ally - Burgundy, Low Countries, Empire, Sp - offended by Eng church affairs
- No longer hope for Prot counter - Lutheran States were more/as likley to be more aggressive towards Calvinist states than Cath ones.
- Supply lines between Calais/Boulogne = severed
- Victory at sea in the Channel via the actions of Francis Hastings, 2nd earl of Huntingdon, lit-gen of the army + chief captain of the fleet allowed the occupation of Boulgone to cont - supply it by sea.
- Siege = relieved
- Eng in command of the Channel
- HII fearing what C5 might do (in the end did nothing), could not afford to bolster the siege - entered peace negoitations in Jan 1550
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Peace with Fr - N
- Gov = bankrupt - N unable to raise army to lift the siege. Any attempt to persuade C5 to extend the T to protect Boulogne - failed. Even so, HII afraid that C5 would intervene to help Eng.
- John Russell sent to negotiate - Jan 1550
- Eng prepared to divest themselves of Boulogne - Dudley had convinced the Council of this necessity - in exchange of full ransom agreed between the 2 prev kings.
- Insistent Mary to Eng + eventually marry E6
- HII would agree to neither concession
- Dudley and Paget persuade the king's gov council to sue for peace
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Treaty of Boulogne - N
- 28 March 1550
- HII paid the Eng 400,000 gold crowns for the handover
- 25 Apr - garrison moved to Calais
- Eng agreed to leave Scot
- Eng agree not to renew the war unless provoked by Scots
- Alliance between Eng/Fr
- Removed the daner of Fr invasion + ended the crippling expense of war
- Crisis still remained
- Seen as a nat disgrace - added to N unpop
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N + Fr - marriage alliance
- T of Angers
- Marriage between E6 + HII daughter Elizabeth
- Liz was to come to Eng at 12 + dowry of 200,000 gold coins
- Alliance ratified Dec 1550
- In return for Eng neutrality in continental wars
- Not well recieved in Eng
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Eng internat poistion post peace with Fr - N
- Eng internat poistion = still very weak - lack of money forced N to run down both the army/navy.
- Hasburgs - remained hostile - particularly when the CofE was beginning to swing towards more extreme Calvinist doctrines.
- Many respects, Eng had returned to the position of weakness/isolation - resulted from the failure of H8 FP.
- T of Boulogne - marked the end of the phase of policy initiated by H8, during which the reconquest of Fr territories = major goal.
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N + HRE
- Deteriorated steadily
- C5 disliked Anglo-Fr alliance + annoyed by attempts of Eng reformers to force M1 to abandon her Cath faith.
- Breakdown in commerical contacts with the Neth - had been protected by the Intercursus Magnus since 1496
- Apr 1550 - C5 issued edict allowing the Cath Inquistion to arrest any heretics in the Neth
- Outraged many Eng merchants
- Edict modified to exclude foreginers - but still helped to bring about the collapse in the Antwerp Market - many Flemish clothworkers fled to Eng to avoid persecution.
- Disputes over piracy in Eng Channel
- Not till Dec 1550 C5 made any attempts to restore good trading relations - only from fear that Eng would be driven in a closer alliance to Fr.
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Anglo-S relations - N
- Poor state
- N withdrew the remaining Eng garrisions from Scot - left Fr in control
- Scot nobles/Prot Lowlanders - becoming increasingly hostile towards the Fr - fearing Scot would be become a mere province of Fr.
- Fall of S = confused sit on Eng side of border
- Lord Dacre + Earl of Rutland at Carlisle + Berwick - no clear policy to follow
- 1550 - N makes himself Warden of N - take personal control of affairs along the border
- Lord Wharton = his deupty
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N + Scot - dealing with the border
- Sir Robert Bowen ordered to survey the border
- To end the constant minor disputes over land - threatened the uneasy peace
- Report = area 15miles by 4miles - under dispute between Eng/Scot
- N strengthens Berwick + Carlisle
- N returns to Ldn
- Lord Dacre - negotiate a settlement of the line of the border with the Scots
- Progress = slow
- Not till Fr fleet landed supplies/trps in Scot (Feb 1551) - negotiations begin in earnest
- March 1552 - agreed that the border was to be restored to the line held b4 H8 Scot campaigns
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Worsening Contiental powers - N
- Policy of neutrality to contiental powers
- C5 - disapprove of increasing Prot of the CofE
- Considered that Eng policy = unpredictable
- March 1552 - C5 v HII war
- Anglo-Imperial relations began to improve
- N resist Fr pressure to join war against HRE - C5 = more conciliatory over Eng trade with Neth
- June 1552: good dip relations restored between Eng/HRE
- Fr invade Lorraine + Neth - C5 reminded Eng she was bound under treaty obligations to assist the Empire if the Neth was ever attacked.
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C5 reminds Eng about T obligations to Neth. Eng re
- Garrison at Calais = reinforced
- No active part in the war
- Eng/Fr relationship deteriorated
- 2nd 1/2 of Fr money - T of Boulogne = unpaid
- Fr privateers begin attacking Eng shipping
- Eng in no poistion for military action, Fr feared an A-I alliance + careful to avoid open confrontation.
- Jan 1553 - N proposes to act as a mediator between Fr/HRE
- Prompted by fears over E6 declining health + illness of C5
- Fr - not interested in peace
- June 1553 - negotiations collapse
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Q of succession
- 1553 - E6 death
- M1 Tudor - strong connection to Hasburgs - bring Eng into war on the Imperial side
- C5 in favour of this solution - enhance his war effort + restore Cath in Eng
- Fr - succession where N would stay in power + poss produce a sit where they could intervene in favour of the claims of MQofS
- Imperial diplomats convinced Mary Tudor's claim to throne = ignored.
- N plan to put Lady Jane Grey on throne failed due to lack of support among Eng aristocracy/gentry.
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- Collapse of Antwerp + breakdown of commerical relations with Empire = new markets needed
- 1547 - Sebastian Cabot (Italian explorer) - given pension of £100 a yr to come to Eng + help discover new land.
- 1551 - Will Hawkins opened up trade in cloth/timber/saltpetre/iron/sugar along the Barbary Coast
- 1553 - Eng ships trading with the Far East
- Ships/navigation - too poor to attempt the sea routes around the Cape of Good Hope in S Africa
- After H7 death - successive Eng gov did not encourage Atlantic exploration for fear of offending Sp + endangering A-Hasb alliance.
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N-E passage search
- John Dee proposed finding a N-E passafe to the East
- 1552, a company woth Seb Cabot as its gov, to which cirt merchants/members of PC each contributed £325
- May 1553 - Sir Hugh Willoughby put in command of 3 ships + given sailing orders drawn up by Cabot
- PC gave him letters of intro to the ruler of Chine
- HW/2 ships lost in Lapland - 1554
- Richard Chancellor (2nd in command) - reached port of Archnagel in the White Sea + estb dip links with Ivan IV, the Tsar of Muscovy
- 1553 - Muscovy Comapny founded
- Trade between the 2 countries
- Early Eng exploration/improv to dockyards/navy begun in 1555 - come to fruition later - E1 reign
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- Back in contact with Rome
- Alliance with HRE re-instated - now ally with most powerful country in W EU
- Neth: part of PII inheritance - Eng main commerical outlet = secure
- PII - willing to do his duty. Spend mim time in Eng.
- Many Engnobleman feared alliance would lead to a renewal of war with Fr
- Not pop in Eng - one of reason for 1554 Wyatt Rebellion
- Through her marriage M1 became Q of the Low Countries and Archduchess of Burgundy - powerful trade relations and ec gains for Eng
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Attempt at peace - Mary - era of Marian Conciliati
- Poistion of conciliation - action of stopping someone being angry/placation
- Partially to lay to rest fears over PII influence + partially to service Christendom + raise Eng profile abroad
- Neutral arbiter for the hotbed of tension between the Valois and Habsburg Rulers over the Italian Peninsula.
- Paget/Gardiner sent to Calais in May 1555 to begin laying the foundations of a general epace conference.
- Actual talks took place at Gravelines and La Marque - near Calais
- Seemed really poss of a peaceful resoultion to the outstanding issues
- HII/Fr still pursued claims to the Duchy of Milan
- Emperor wanted Metz and Verdun freed from Fr occupation
- Eng sponsored neotitation came to nothinh
- Warring parties eventually resolvd the tensions without Eng - 5 Feb 1556
- T of Vaucelles - 5 yr truce
- PII ganed the territory known as Franche-Comte - sit on the Fr border with the Duchy of Burgundy
- Peace did not last long
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Pope Paul VI - M1
- Elected 23 May 1555
- Aragonese domnation of his homeland - fostered in him an anti-Sp, anti-Habsbury attitude - work in Sp had entirely failed to soften.
- Accepted the papal tiara specifically beause C5 had opposed his nomination.
- Blessed the marriage
- Deeply untrusting of Cardinal Reginald Pole - both his work/ideals
- Pole rep a spirituali viewpoint in the Church - a view diametrically opposed to Caraffa's own reactionary doctrinaire zelanti ph.
- Used the inquisition to pursue Pole on heresy charges - failed to have him captured/killed/dragged back to Rome before he made it back to Eng
- Chose the time of peace to appeal to Fr to clear the Sp out of his beloved Naples
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M1 neautrality begins to wane
- Pope's hatred of Pole - made Church relations difficult in Eng - at a time when M1 needed them to be smooth and non-controverisal as poss.
- Wyatt Rebellion
- Death of Gardiner - her most abale adivsor on foregin affairs - Nov 1555
- No sign of a heir
- Declining health
- PII had left the realm in Oct to take up his role as King of the non-Ger Habsburg hegemony - Sp/Low Countries/Naples/Milan.
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Fr plots to prevent an A-S allaince - M1
- Fr concerned about threat of A-S child - would have united EU against them
- Noailles, Fr ambassador - worked hard to ensure marriage didn't occur
- Involved in Wyatt rebellion
- M1 resp to the threats by clearly setting out the main rival claimants in meetings with Renard/Paget - MQofS/Lady Frances (H8 niece)/E1.
- Fr - obv in strong poistion - MQofS was engaged to be married to the Dauphin of Fr
- Failure of Wyatt Reb - put end to any challenges to the throne
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War with Fr - M1
- 1555 - no kid = obv. PII saw little use in marriage.
- Og agreement - MI can't involve Eng in PII war
- Loophole - PII, as a man, could help M1 rule Eng - PII began to head in the direction of this, when war broke out 1556.
- Nov 1555 - Gardiner died - MI only real Eng voice of reason
- Made MI anxious for PII to return to Eng to advise her.
- PII came to Eng - 1556
- MI eaisly persuaded into joining his war against the wishes of P + her og treaty.
- Prev involvment of the Fr in Wyatt Reb came into light - PC agree to war
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M1 - Eng camp in Fr
- July 1556 - E of Pembroke went to Fr
- 5,000-7,000 Eng trps
- Joined the D of Savoy and 70,000 Sp in defeating the Fr at Battle of St Quentin in 1577
- Battle of St Quentin:
- Sp/Eng noble used this military win to the adv of M1 and Eng court
- Spectular military win for Eng - M1 vast glory - used it as this
- Overlooked the small/insig role Eng forces actually played in the battle
- Royal Navy - minor victories in Channel over the Fr
- Eng perform valuable convoy duties for the Atlantic fishing fleet + Sp Bullion fleet
- Used it's artillery to turn the tide of the Battle near Gravelines in July 1558
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Impact of success of Eng camp - M1 FP
- D of Guise - commander of Fr army - forced to bring back trps from Italy and besieged Calais
- Eng crown = bankrupt - could not afford to send a relief force back to Calais
- Defence of the city had been neglected - fell eaisly to the Fr force of 27,000
- Eng held out for 3 wks - no reinforcements arrived
- Loss - greater to Eng morale than her ec/milt position
- Retaliation to loss of Calais:
- Eng raised 7,000 trps and 140 ships to attack Fr city of Brest
- Only took a minor port of Le Conquet
- PII sat camped with 45,000 near Amiens - refuse to get involved + eventually making peace with the Fr. Did og set out with the intention of getting back Calais for the Eng but M1 died in Nov - he abandoned the Eng.
- Impact of loss of Calais:
- Loss - more symbolic than anything else
- Costly/insig territory
- Loss of pride - put an end to the historic Eng claim to the Fr crown
- Removal of focus from Fr - led to greater focus on rest of the world - E1 move on to a much broader FP.
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Irl - M1
- Plantation (idea from S gov)
- Settler of proven loyalty could b sold confiscated lands and would move in to stabilise the are of settlement.
- M1 gov took this idea + set about setting up a colony
- 1556 - Sir Thomas Ratcliffe made Lord Deputy of Irl
- Harsh/self-interested/able administrator
- Estb the plantations of Leix and Offlay - prev these fam/lands had been rebellious to the Eng
- Plantation policy
- Gains in adminstrative efficiency and in estb of law/order
- Milt cost + failure to deal with social/ec issue
- Relative security it afforded with forever punctared by native uprisings born of resentment and oppression.
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Irl - M1 - R
- Re-imposition of Roman Cath = anticlimactic
- Does not appear to have pursued the case of Cath church in Irl with anywhere near the same determination that it displayed in Eng
- 1554 - deprieve married clergy of their livings + re-construction of St Patrick's Cathedral
- Didn't return first fruits and tenths to the Church of Irl till a few months before her death
- But majority of pop had never departed as they had in Eng from the trad faith
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The affair of Scarborough Castle
- One of reasons why Eng went to war v Fr
- Thomas Stafford hatched a plan to re-assert his familial claims to the throne
- TS - exile - work for uncle RP in Rome + King of Poland, Sigismund II Augustus
- Convinces SA to wrtie letter on his behalf to M1, asking that the Stafford family ducal title - Buckingham be restored to them.
- Joins Wyatt Reb - captured but escapes to Fr
- Fr - he promotes his claims to Eng throne among Eng exiles/HII
- Doubtful HII took much stock in TS claims/supported proposed actions - nothing to gain by them.
- 18 Apr 1557 - 2 ships/30 supporters - sails from Dieppe to Scarborough - 25th lands
- Storm the castle. Declares himself the 'Protector of the Realm' - poss intent: re-engergise Wyatt's rebels - failed.
- Said he had evd M1 had arranged for PII to take possession of S port fortresses/supplies for an 12,000 occupying force - fell on deaf ear.
- 28th Apr - captured/executed.
- Shot in the arm for PII camp for Eng support needed - anti-Fr rhetoric/warmongering took a life of their own.
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