Somerset and France

  • Calais/Boulogne/Newhaven defenses strengthened
  • Eng fleet sent to patrol Eng channel 
  • Tried to negoitate with Fr for a defensive alliance - isolate Scot
    • FI dies. H2 - more aggressive - no hope of comprise with the Fr
  • HII renewes Scot alliance
    • June 1547 sends fleet of warships + 4,000 trps to Scot
    • S has to intervene directly in Scottish affairs - pretext of arranging the marriage
  • Eng/Fr privateers attack shipping in Eng Channel/N sea 
  • Fr begin to build up forces around Boulogne 
  • S eventually conviniced Fr will not attack Boulogne, out of fear it will push HRE into war
    • Sends 12,000 infantry + 1,800 cavalry to besiege Haddington Castle
  • S - unwilling to leave Ldn + worried about Fr build up around Boulogne - indecisive - anger PC
  • Eng negotiate with Fr - sn appear war will break out + Fr was going to intervne. 
  • Aug - S forced to withdraw trps from N + recall Eng fleet from Channel against a poss Fr attack
  • Fr decide war in Scot = to costly. Redeploy forces on Boulgone. 
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S + Scot

  • Sept 10th 1547 - Battle of Pinkie
    • Scots cut to pieces by Eng cannon/cavalry + S able to occupy all main border strongholds + Eng control of border
  • Sept 1647 = joint naval/land invasion of Scot launched - invaded Scot with 16,000 infantry + 4,000 mercenary + well supplied with cannon and upported by sea by a fleet of 30 warships.
    • Lord Arran raised a Scot army of 20,000 - poorly equipped
  • Domestic affaris - S preoccupied with - left Scot with bulk of his army on 18th Sept
  • Defeat united Scot nobles + supported Mary Guise in opp to Eng. Scot council meet at Stirling + decide to ask Fr for more help
  • June - Fr fleet with 10,000 trps land in Scot + MQofS taken to Fr to be educ
  • Rebellions in Eng. S unwilling to withdraw border garrisons - allowed sit in Eng to get out of control.
  • Recall of trps from N - Haddington abandoned + other Eng strongholds in Scot
  • Lose Fr support - too costly. Scot too weak to launch any major attack on N of Eng
  • S in Ldn + pre-occupied with domesitc affairs. Main base in Scot - Carlisle/Berwick/Haddington Castle - strengthened but unable to maintain control. Haddington besieged by Fr/Scot forces.
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S policy of building a series of fortress along th

  • Costly
  • Ineffective
  • Far too long to implement
  • Depended on two factors beyond his control:
    • Capture of Edinburgh - never occured
    • Preventing of aid arriving from Fr - failed
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S - blockade of the Firth of Forth - Scot

  • Failed to keep Fr navy out
  • S failed to find accord with pro-Eng Scot faction (or what passed for one)
  • S had no real domestic powerbase outside the Eng military
  • Fr move trps in + set up own fortresses + smuggle MQofS out - last one meant S main objective = failed
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S joint land/naval invasion of Scot - more detail

  • HII renews F-S alliance + sends 4000 trps
  • S launches invasion of Scot
  • Trps under his own auth + John Dudley (E of Warwick) + William Dacre (3rd Baron Dacre) - commanding the infantry.
    • 16,000 trps march N from Berwick
    • Cavalry placed under Will Grey, 13th Baron Grey de Wilton - experienced campaigner
    • 4,000 mercenaries were hired 
    • 30 warships - under Edward Finnes de Clinton - experienced campaginer under H8/S on the Scot front.
  • Sir Thomas Warton raided N from Carisle - 2,00 men + 50 cavalry + aided by Scot nobleman, Matthew Stuart, E of Lennox (who wanted to re-estb his place in Scot succession - exiled by enemies around the crown) - diversionary tactic - successful.
  • Battle of Pinkie.
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Impact of Battle of Pinkie

  • S forces occupied all of the border strongholds
  • Grey left in Berwick as gov + Warden of the East Marches + General of the N parts
  • Border secure
  • S could do no more - strongholds = vulnerable to Scot harassment raids - draining the Eng treasury + adding nothing tangible.
  • S didn't have the option to withdraw - warlike tendencies of the Eng nobility/his fellow councillors.
    • Would have been financially distarous at this point
    • Sends in 3 more armies - Aug 1548, Jan 1549 and June 1549 
    • Defends the gains made + pursue fulfilment of the marriage treaty
  • Expensive
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War with Fr - more detail

  • F-S ties 
    • MQofS to marry HII son, Francois - did occur
  • Forced S hand - threats being made against Eng possession in Fr
  • Build up Eng naval op in N Sea + Channel regions + keep up Scot occupation
  • Scot front - Wharton remained posted on the W March in Carlisle + Grey in Berwick
  • 12,00 Eng trps + 1,800 cavalry dispatched - react against increased F-S aggression
  • 2 yrs before S could turn his attentions to Fr + unable to react effectively to events.
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Why could S not react effectivley?

  • S-F forces in Scot = drain on his time/efforts/resources
  • Uprising in Eng 1549 = collapse on his reign
    • Recalled trps from the Scot border
    • Reversal there of prev gains
    • If S had been able to delegate better - might have been able to extricate himself from Scot sooner + prevent the invetiable loss of Boulogne.
  • H8 last wishes - reluctance of the peers of the realm to abandon the terms of the T of Greenwich
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Foregin sit at end of S regime

  • War on 2 fronts - no apparenet reason
  • No hope of reason from a contiental ally - Burgundy, Low Countries, Empire, Sp - offended by Eng church affairs
  • No longer hope for Prot counter - Lutheran States were more/as likley to be more aggressive towards Calvinist states than Cath ones.
  • Supply lines between Calais/Boulogne = severed
  • Victory at sea in the Channel via the actions of Francis Hastings, 2nd earl of Huntingdon, lit-gen of the army + chief captain of the fleet allowed the occupation of Boulgone to cont - supply it by sea.
  • Siege = relieved
  • Eng in command of the Channel
  • HII fearing what C5 might do (in the end did nothing), could not afford to bolster the siege - entered peace negoitations in Jan 1550
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Peace with Fr - N

  • Gov = bankrupt - N unable to raise army to lift the siege. Any attempt to persuade C5 to extend the T to protect Boulogne - failed. Even so, HII afraid that C5 would intervene to help Eng.
  • John Russell sent to negotiate - Jan 1550
  • Eng prepared to divest themselves of Boulogne - Dudley had convinced the Council of this necessity - in exchange of full ransom agreed between the 2 prev kings.
  • Insistent Mary to Eng + eventually marry E6
  • HII would agree to neither concession
  • Dudley and Paget persuade the king's gov council to sue for peace
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Treaty of Boulogne - N

  • 28 March 1550
  • HII paid the Eng 400,000 gold crowns for the handover
  • 25 Apr - garrison moved to Calais
  • Eng agreed to leave Scot
  • Eng agree not to renew the war unless provoked by Scots
  • Alliance between Eng/Fr
  • Removed the daner of Fr invasion + ended the crippling expense of war
  • Crisis still remained
  • Seen as a nat disgrace - added to N unpop
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N + Fr - marriage alliance

  • T of Angers
  • Marriage between E6 + HII daughter Elizabeth 
  • Liz was to come to Eng at 12 + dowry of 200,000 gold coins
  • Alliance ratified Dec 1550
  • In return for Eng neutrality in continental wars
  • Not well recieved in Eng
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Eng internat poistion post peace with Fr - N

  • Eng internat poistion = still very weak - lack of money forced N to run down both the army/navy.
  • Hasburgs - remained hostile - particularly when the CofE was beginning to swing towards more extreme Calvinist doctrines. 
  • Many respects, Eng had returned to the position of weakness/isolation - resulted from the failure of H8 FP.
  • T of Boulogne - marked the end of the phase of policy initiated by H8, during which the reconquest of Fr territories = major goal.
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  • Deteriorated steadily
  • C5 disliked Anglo-Fr alliance + annoyed by attempts of Eng reformers to force M1 to abandon her Cath faith.
  • Breakdown in commerical contacts with the Neth - had been protected by the Intercursus Magnus since 1496
  • Apr 1550 - C5 issued edict allowing the Cath Inquistion to arrest any heretics in the Neth
    • Outraged many Eng merchants
    • Edict modified to exclude foreginers - but still helped to bring about the collapse in the Antwerp Market - many Flemish clothworkers fled to Eng to avoid persecution. 
  • Disputes over piracy in Eng Channel 
  • Not till Dec 1550 C5 made any attempts to restore good trading relations - only from fear that Eng would be driven in a closer alliance to Fr.
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Anglo-S relations - N

  • Poor state
  • N withdrew the remaining Eng garrisions from Scot - left Fr in control
  • Scot nobles/Prot Lowlanders - becoming increasingly hostile towards the Fr - fearing Scot would be become a mere province of Fr.
  • Fall of S = confused sit on Eng side of border
  • Lord Dacre + Earl of Rutland at Carlisle + Berwick - no clear policy to follow
  • 1550 - N makes himself Warden of N - take personal control of affairs along the border
    • Lord Wharton = his deupty
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N + Scot - dealing with the border

  • Sir Robert Bowen ordered to survey the border
    • To end the constant minor disputes over land - threatened the uneasy peace
    • Report = area 15miles by 4miles - under dispute between Eng/Scot
  • N strengthens Berwick + Carlisle
  • N returns to Ldn
  • Lord Dacre - negotiate a settlement of the line of the border with the Scots
  • Progress = slow
  • Not till Fr fleet landed supplies/trps in Scot (Feb 1551) - negotiations begin in earnest
  • March 1552 - agreed that the border was to be restored to the line held b4 H8 Scot campaigns 
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Worsening Contiental powers - N

  • Policy of neutrality to contiental powers
  • C5 - disapprove of increasing Prot of the CofE
    • Considered that Eng policy = unpredictable
  • March 1552 - C5 v HII war
    • Anglo-Imperial relations began to improve
  • N resist Fr pressure to join war against HRE - C5 = more conciliatory over Eng trade with Neth
  • June 1552: good dip relations restored between Eng/HRE
  • Fr invade Lorraine + Neth - C5 reminded Eng she was bound under treaty obligations to assist the Empire if the Neth was ever attacked.
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C5 reminds Eng about T obligations to Neth. Eng re

  • Garrison at Calais = reinforced
  • No active part in the war
  • Eng/Fr relationship deteriorated
  • 2nd 1/2 of Fr money - T of Boulogne = unpaid
    • Fr privateers begin attacking Eng shipping
    • Eng in no poistion for military action, Fr feared an A-I alliance + careful to avoid open confrontation. 
  • Jan 1553 - N proposes to act as a mediator between Fr/HRE
    • Prompted by fears over E6 declining health + illness of C5
    • Fr - not interested in peace
    • June 1553 - negotiations collapse
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Q of succession

  • 1553 - E6 death
  • M1 Tudor - strong connection to Hasburgs - bring Eng into war on the Imperial side
    • C5 in favour of this solution - enhance his war effort + restore Cath in Eng
  • Fr - succession where N would stay in power + poss produce a sit where they could intervene in favour of the claims of MQofS
  • Imperial diplomats convinced Mary Tudor's claim to throne = ignored. 
  • N plan to put Lady Jane Grey on throne failed due to lack of support among Eng aristocracy/gentry.
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  • Collapse of Antwerp + breakdown of commerical relations with Empire = new markets needed
  • 1547 - Sebastian Cabot (Italian explorer) - given pension of £100 a yr to come to Eng + help discover new land.
  • 1551 - Will Hawkins opened up trade in cloth/timber/saltpetre/iron/sugar along the Barbary Coast
  • 1553 - Eng ships trading with the Far East
    • Ships/navigation - too poor to attempt the sea routes around the Cape of Good Hope in S Africa 
  • After H7 death - successive Eng gov did not encourage Atlantic exploration for fear of offending Sp + endangering A-Hasb alliance.
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N-E passage search

  • John Dee proposed finding a N-E passafe to the East
  • 1552, a company woth Seb Cabot as its gov, to which cirt merchants/members of PC each contributed £325
  • May 1553 - Sir Hugh Willoughby put in command of 3 ships + given sailing orders drawn up by Cabot
    • PC gave him letters of intro to the ruler of Chine
    • HW/2 ships lost in Lapland - 1554
    • Richard Chancellor (2nd in command) - reached port of Archnagel in the White Sea + estb dip links with Ivan IV, the Tsar of Muscovy
  • 1553 - Muscovy Comapny founded
    • Trade between the 2 countries
  • Early Eng exploration/improv to dockyards/navy begun in 1555 - come to fruition later - E1 reign
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  • Back in contact with Rome 
  • Alliance with HRE re-instated - now ally with most powerful country in W EU
  • Neth: part of PII inheritance - Eng main commerical outlet = secure
  • PII - willing to do his duty. Spend mim time in Eng.
    • Many Engnobleman feared alliance would lead to a renewal of war with Fr
    • Not pop in Eng - one of reason for 1554 Wyatt Rebellion
    • Through her marriage M1 became Q of the Low Countries and Archduchess of Burgundy - powerful trade relations and ec gains for Eng
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Attempt at peace - Mary - era of Marian Conciliati

  • Poistion of conciliation - action of stopping someone being angry/placation
    • Partially to lay to rest fears over PII influence + partially to service Christendom + raise Eng profile abroad
  • Neutral arbiter for the hotbed of tension between the Valois and Habsburg Rulers over the Italian Peninsula.
  • Paget/Gardiner sent to Calais in May 1555 to begin laying the foundations of a general epace conference.
    • Actual talks took place at Gravelines and La Marque - near Calais
    • Seemed really poss of a peaceful resoultion to the outstanding issues
    • HII/Fr still pursued claims to the Duchy of Milan
    • Emperor wanted Metz and Verdun freed from Fr occupation
  • Eng sponsored neotitation came to nothinh
  • Warring parties eventually resolvd the tensions without Eng - 5 Feb 1556 
    • T of Vaucelles - 5 yr truce
    • PII ganed the territory known as Franche-Comte - sit on the Fr border with the Duchy of Burgundy
    • Peace did not last long
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Pope Paul VI - M1

  • Elected 23 May 1555
  • Aragonese domnation of his homeland - fostered in him an anti-Sp, anti-Habsbury attitude - work in Sp had entirely failed to soften.
  • Accepted the papal tiara specifically beause C5 had opposed his nomination.
  • Blessed the marriage
  • Deeply untrusting of Cardinal Reginald Pole - both his work/ideals
    • Pole rep a spirituali viewpoint in the Church - a view diametrically opposed to Caraffa's own reactionary doctrinaire zelanti ph.
    • Used the inquisition to pursue Pole on heresy charges - failed to have him captured/killed/dragged back to Rome before he made it back to Eng
  • Chose the time of peace to appeal to Fr to clear the Sp out of his beloved Naples
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M1 neautrality begins to wane

  • Pope's hatred of Pole - made Church relations difficult in Eng - at a time when M1 needed them to be smooth and non-controverisal as poss.
  • Wyatt Rebellion
  • Death of Gardiner - her most abale adivsor on foregin affairs - Nov 1555
  • No sign of a heir
  • Declining health
  • PII had left the realm in Oct to take up his role as King of the non-Ger Habsburg hegemony - Sp/Low Countries/Naples/Milan.
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Fr plots to prevent an A-S allaince - M1

  • Fr concerned about threat of A-S child - would have united EU against them
  • Noailles, Fr ambassador - worked hard to ensure marriage didn't occur
    • Involved in Wyatt rebellion
  • M1 resp to the threats by clearly setting out the main rival claimants in meetings with Renard/Paget - MQofS/Lady Frances (H8 niece)/E1.
  • Fr - obv in strong poistion - MQofS was engaged to be married to the Dauphin of Fr 
  • Failure of Wyatt Reb - put end to any challenges to the throne
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War with Fr - M1

  • 1555 - no kid = obv. PII saw little use in marriage.
  • Og agreement - MI can't involve Eng in PII war 
    • Loophole - PII, as a man, could help M1 rule Eng - PII began to head in the direction of this, when war broke out 1556.
  • Nov 1555 - Gardiner died - MI only real Eng voice of reason
    • Made MI anxious for PII to return to Eng to advise her.
    • PII came to Eng - 1556
    • MI eaisly persuaded into joining his war against the wishes of P + her og treaty.
    • Prev involvment of the Fr in Wyatt Reb came into light - PC agree to war
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M1 - Eng camp in Fr

  • July 1556 - E of Pembroke went to Fr
    • 5,000-7,000 Eng trps
    • Joined the D of Savoy and 70,000 Sp in defeating the Fr at Battle of St Quentin in 1577
  • Battle of St Quentin:
    • Sp/Eng noble used this military win to the adv of M1 and Eng court
    • Spectular military win for Eng - M1 vast glory - used it as this
    • Overlooked the small/insig role Eng forces actually played in the battle
  • Royal Navy - minor victories in Channel over the Fr
    • Eng perform valuable convoy duties for the Atlantic fishing fleet + Sp Bullion fleet
    • Used it's artillery to turn the tide of the Battle near Gravelines in July 1558
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Impact of success of Eng camp - M1 FP

  • D of Guise - commander of Fr army - forced to bring back trps from Italy and besieged Calais
  • Eng crown = bankrupt - could not afford to send a relief force back to Calais
  • Defence of the city had been neglected - fell eaisly to the Fr force of 27,000
  • Eng held out for 3 wks - no reinforcements arrived 
  • Loss - greater to Eng morale than her ec/milt position
  • Retaliation to loss of Calais:
    • Eng raised 7,000 trps and 140 ships to attack Fr city of Brest
    • Only took a minor port of Le Conquet
    • PII sat camped with 45,000 near Amiens - refuse to get involved + eventually making peace with the Fr. Did og set out with the intention of getting back Calais for the Eng but M1 died in Nov - he abandoned the Eng.
  • Impact of loss of Calais:
    • Loss - more symbolic than anything else
    • Costly/insig territory
    • Loss of pride - put an end to the historic Eng claim to the Fr crown
    • Removal of focus from Fr - led to greater focus on rest of the world - E1 move on to a much broader FP.
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Irl - M1

  • Plantation (idea from S gov) 
    • Settler of proven loyalty could b sold confiscated lands and would move in to stabilise the are of settlement. 
    • M1 gov took this idea + set about setting up a colony
  • 1556 - Sir Thomas Ratcliffe made Lord Deputy of Irl
    • Harsh/self-interested/able administrator 
    • Estb the plantations of Leix and Offlay - prev these fam/lands had been rebellious to the Eng
  • Plantation policy
    • Gains in adminstrative efficiency and in estb of law/order
    • Milt cost + failure to deal with social/ec issue
    • Relative security it afforded with forever punctared by native uprisings born of resentment and oppression.
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Irl - M1 - R

  • Re-imposition of Roman Cath = anticlimactic
  • Does not appear to have pursued the case of Cath church in Irl with anywhere near the same determination that it displayed in Eng
  • 1554 - deprieve married clergy of their livings + re-construction of St Patrick's Cathedral 
  • Didn't return first fruits and tenths to the Church of Irl till a few months before her death
  • But majority of pop had never departed as they had in Eng from the trad faith 
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The affair of Scarborough Castle

  • One of reasons why Eng went to war v Fr
  • Thomas Stafford hatched a plan to re-assert his familial claims to the throne
    • TS - exile - work for uncle RP in Rome + King of Poland, Sigismund II Augustus
  • Convinces SA to wrtie letter on his behalf to M1, asking that the Stafford family ducal title - Buckingham be restored to them.
  • Joins Wyatt Reb - captured but escapes to Fr
  • Fr - he promotes his claims to Eng throne among Eng exiles/HII
  • Doubtful HII took much stock in TS claims/supported proposed actions - nothing to gain by them.
  • 18 Apr 1557 - 2 ships/30 supporters - sails from Dieppe to Scarborough - 25th lands
  • Storm the castle. Declares himself the 'Protector of the Realm' - poss intent: re-engergise Wyatt's rebels - failed.
  • Said he had evd M1 had arranged for PII to take possession of S port fortresses/supplies for an 12,000 occupying force - fell on deaf ear. 
  • 28th Apr - captured/executed. 
  • Shot in the arm for PII camp for Eng support needed - anti-Fr rhetoric/warmongering took a life of their own.
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