Dysfunctional behaviour: Treatment

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Kane et al: Fluphenazine vs placebo in patients wi

Aim: To carry out a one-year, double blind research study to see the effectiveness of fluphenazine as a tratment for schizophrenia 

Method: A longitudinal study with patients allocated to one of three groups - two treatment groups and one placebo group 

Participants: 28 patients from New York        Design: Independent measures 

Procedure: Patients were randomly assigned and given the drugs or placebo. Patients were removed if they 'dropped out', had toxic side effects or relapsed. Relapse was defined as a substancial clincial deterioration. Two reacheres would decide on the reason for patient leaving 

Findings: 1. Out of 17 patients recieving the placebo, 7 had relapes and dropped out 2. Among the drug treatment groups there were no relapses and 1 dropped out 3. Toxic effects caused 2 others to drop out by week 32 

Conclusions: These results suggest schizophrenia can be successfully treated using fluphenazine or fluphenazine deaconate once they are in remission 

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Paul and Lentz

Aim: To compare the effectiveness of social learning and milieu therapetic centres with hospital programmes for treating patients with psychotic disorders 

Method: Longitudinal study over 4.5 years in clincal units with 3 contions - assessed through obervations, interviews and rating scales 

Paticipants: 84 patients from 4 state hospitals in Illinois -as patients died or were released they were replaced

Design: Independent measures, 3 conditions, soical learning, milieu therapy, usual therapy in hospital 

Procedure: group 1: - Rewards given for desired behaviour with emphasis on stimulus response training and material reinforcement. Group 2: -Patients expected to focus on the group with group problem solving, group pressure and interactions between community members. Group 3- Less meetings, eating and drug taking. 

Findings: - At every assessment (by IAB) social learning theory was more effective - Milieu showed some improvements over hospital. - End of research most in group 1 released, then 2 then 3 

Conclusions: Social learning programme was effective 

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Sensky et al: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

Aim: To compare CBT with non-specific befriending interventions for patients with schizophrenia in effectively reducing positive symptoms of schizophrenia 

Design: A randomised controlled design. Patients were allocated to one of two groups: - CBT - a non-specific befriending control group 

Participants: 90 patients from 57 clinics from UK 

Procedure: - Patients were allocated to one of two groups, both interventions were delivered by two expereienced nurses. - CBT: initially engaging withpatients, developikng a reason for the behaviour and treatment of other disorder such as depression. The patients were helped to change their beliefs, and were taught coping strategies to deal with voices. - BEFRIENDING: The therapists were empathetic and non-directive, no attempt at therapy just sport hobbies etc. - Patients were assessed 

Results: Both interventions resulted in significant reductions in positvie and negative symtoms and depression. Follow up evaluation found patient sthat recieved CBT showed greater improvements on all meaures - where as befriending has lost some benfits 

Conclusions: CBT is effective in treating negative symptoms as well as positive. 

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