ICD and DSM
International Classification of Disease and Related Helth Problems
- Chapter V is concerned with mental and behavioural disorders
- The aim of early ICD's was to refine the definitions for disorders
- This allowed for inconsistencies to be removed and result in the clear set of criteria no in ICD-10
- The categories included: dementia, schizophrenia, mood disorders + personality disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
- Field trials were used before publication
- This manual was produced in the USA so cultural bias is a weakness
- Major difference is the multi-axial tool, used to asses the patient functioning on a scale of 1 to 100
- This makes the DSM more hollistic than the ICD
Rosenhan and Seligman: Abnormal psychology
Statistical infrequency: "Abnormality" would refer to any behaviour that is not seen very often in society. However it is diffucult to use this on its own, for example high IQ may be encompassed.
Deviation from social norms: If society does not approve of a behaviour then it is dysfunctional. However this will make some behaviours dysfunctional in cultures and not in others.
Failure to function adequately: Perhaps a more useful definitions is that if a person is not functioning in a way that enables them to live independently in soicety then they are 'dysfunctional'. There are several ways a person might not be functioning well.
Deviation from ideal mental health: Psychologists often take the view that if you lack one thing then you must have the opposite. However we would have to condier what we mean by ideal mental health. Jahodao suggests that to have ideal mental health you should: - postivie view of yourself - capable of personal growth - accurate view of reality.
Ford and Widiger: Sex bias in the diagnosis of dis
Aim: To find out of clinicians were sterotyping genders when diagnosing disorders
Methodology: Self-report, practioners given scenarios and asked to diagnose them
Participants: 345 clinical psychologists from 1127 randomly selected for the register
Design: Independent measures, as each P wsa given male, female or unspecified
Procedure: Participants were randomly provided with one of nine cases. Case studies of patients with anitsocial personalitiy disorder (ASPD) or histrionic personality disorder (HPD) or an equal balance sympotms from both disorders were gvien to each therapist. P's were asked to diagnose the illness by rating on a seven point scale the extent to which the patient appeared to have each of the nine disorders.
Findings: 1. Sex-unspecified cases were diagnosed most often borderline personality disorder 2. ASPD was correctly diagnosed 42% in males and 15% in females 3. Females with ASPD were misdiagnosed with HPD nearly 50% of the time 4. HPD was correctly diagnosed in 76% of females and 44% of males
Conclusions: Practioners are biased by sterotypical views of gender as there was a clear tendency to diagnose females with HPD even they have ASPD