Definitions of Dysfunctional: Rosenhan & Seligman
Background: culture refers to ways of thinking that people learn from members of society, cross-culture differences in belief,traditions and norm ect. Have different definitions and classifying abnormality.Subculture refers to social groups within a society e.g. gender, social class, age, ethnic groups.Culture bound syndromes are found in just certain cultures. Abnormality difficult to define, change across cultures and vary over time. To define we must understand the different views of abnormality.
behavior is abnormal if it falls outside the range that is typical for most people, normal "average".these can be height, weight and intelligence fall within fairly broad areas.In statistical terms they are abnormal because they have moved away from the norm.
deviation from social norms
society or culture has standards of acceptable behaviors/norms, approved and excepted ways of behaving in a particular society or social situation. anything that moves away from these social norms are considered abnormal.
Definitions of Dysfunctional: Rosenhan & Seligman
failure to function adequately
if a person is failing to function in a Way that enables them to live their lives. these might be dysfunctional behaviors, obsessive compulsive disorders. distressed by their disorder, not being able to leave the house and Unpredictable behaviour person might have dramatic mood swings or sudden impulses.Irrational behaviour person might think they are being followed.
deviation from ideal mental health
Jahoda identifies various factors that were necessary for ""optimal living" these indicates psychological health and well-being. 1.positive view of self:high self-esteem and self acceptance2.personal growth developing talents and abilities to fullest.3.autonomy able to make own decisions.4.accurate view of reality seeing world as real no distortions 5.positive relationships from close relationships 6. master of your own environment meet demands and able to adapt to changes.
Biases in diagnosis-sex bias: Ford and Widiger
Aim: to find out if clinic are stereotyping genders when diagnosing disorders
Method: self report: health practitioners were given different scenarios. make diagnosis. IV was gender of patient. 226 responded from 354 that were randomly selected. Independent design either male,female or unspecified sex.randomly provided with one of 9 case histories. Patients either had anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) or histrionic personality disorder (HPD). practitioners asked to diagnose the illness on rating 7-point scale to extent the patient had one of the disorders.
Findings: unspecified case mostly borderline personality disorders.ASPD correctly 42% in male compared 15% in females. Females with ASPD misdiagnosed with HPD 46% males only 15%.
Conclusions:practitioners are biased by stereotypical views of genders as there was a clear tendency to diagnose females with HPD when they had ASPD.
ASDP disregards,violation of the rights of other being in childhood/adolescence continue to adulthood.
HPD excessive emotionality and attention seeking
behaviour explation:Watson and Raynor
Aim: to see if it is possible to induce a fear of previously unfeared object through classical conditioning.
Method: a case study by on boy little Albert who was 8 months old and lived in hospital with his mother, a nurse.single subject design. baseline reaction noted started when he was 11 months.session one: repeated hit steel bar behind just as he reaches for rat. cry, whimper fear response conditioned.two: five pair presentation of rat with noise and without, conditioned response to rat, crying and crawling away.three: 5 days later played with block, rat,rabbit, Santa Claus mask presented fear had been transferred to similar objects by negative response.four:taken theatre to see if response the same,slightly until bar hit then increase.five:one month later tested various objects showed fear not gone away over time.
Conclusions: Albert taken from hospital on day 5 never got to remove the fear response.
biology explanation: Gottesman and Shields
Aim: research into genetic transformation of schizophrenia
Method: a review of adoption and twin studies , 711 participants in adoption studies. In twins 210 monozygotic"identical" and 319 dizygotic.incidence of schizophrenia in adopted children and monozygotic twins taken from research.
Findings:all adoption studies found an increase incidence of schizo in children with a schizo biological parent, biological siblings as well showed high percentages.all twin studies show higher percentage of schizo in monozygotic 58% than dizygotic 12%.
Conclusions: there is a heavy genetic input the onset of schizo,must be some interaction with environment from concordance rate less 100%.
cognitive explanation:Beck et al
Aim: to understand cognitive distortions in patients with depression
Method: clinical interviews with patients 50 age rang 18-48 matched pair for age,sex,and social position with 31 non-depressed patients, independent design. face-to-face interviews reports of patients thoughts, some kept diaries which they brought, records of non-depressed verbalisation's were used to compare.
Findings: certain themes appear in depressed patients e.g. low self esteem,desire to escape, paranoia and accusations against other people.Depressed patients felt themselves unlovable and alone, often blame themselves even when no blame can be placed.theses distortions tended to be automatic,involuntary, plausible and persistent.
Conclusions: in depression, and even mild depression patients have cognitive distortions that deviate from realistic and logical thinking.