Dynamic Development-Revision

Development defined

Development=how wealth and quality of life of people living on our planet varies from place to place

Development=subjective term-can be interpreted in no. of ways-geographical terms=country is improving-no country=fully developed & not developed at all-countries move forward and backwards in development for various reasons e.g war, independence...

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Classification

Classification of countries according to development:

AC's : Advanced countries (rich countries of the world)

  • are more in the Northern Hemisphere
  • Distribution concentrated in Western Europe, North America and Australia - only 3 in Asia

EDC's : Emerging and developing countries (in transition from LIDC-->AC)

  • includes BRICs - Brazil, Russia, India and China (2001) - rapid growth in economy - measured by GDP (value of goods country produces)
  • MINTs - Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey
  • these countries predicted to be among largest economies in the world by 2050

LIDC's : Low income developing countries -

  • poor, narrow range of jobs and services (mostly primary and a few secoundary jobs)
  • Distribution concentrated in Africa (a few in Asia)
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GNI

Why are some countries richer than others?

How can we measure development?

Economic measure of development:

GNI : Gross National Income - sum of all money earned in a country - USA=largest GNI - Malawi in Africa-lowest GNI

GNI per capita : divides GNI by no. of people in country(average wealth per person)-doesn't take into account the different living cost of different countries e.g. bottle of milk could be 5 euros in Spain and 10 euros in Italy (not real)

GNI per capita at PPP(Purchasing Pwer Parity) : takes living cost into account - using this measure Qatar has highest, USA=8th & Zimbabwe=lowest

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Criticisms of using GNI

Criticisms of using GNI

  • only average measure of wealth - only few 'mega rich' people in population - most are of lower incomes but 'average' makes country more developed than reality
  • not all wealth is included -e.g. substitance farmers->farmers that grows food to feed their family only
  • development encompasses social, environmental & economical elements e.g. Literacy rate, life expectancy, nutrition, water supply...e.t.c
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Social measure of development

Human Development Index : Includes 3 measures

  • GDP = wealth
  • Life expectancy (average age a baby being born can expect to live to)
  • Adult Literacy Rate (% of 16 year olds that can read and write)

Scores range from 0(lowest) to 1(highest)-Norway=highest-score=0.944 &Niger=lowest-score=0.348---is seen as better 'overall' view of country development-includes social&economic measurements-criticised for not including political development

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Happy Planet Index

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What has led to uneven development?

Uneven development exists both between and within countries. Globally, most ACs=Europe, N.America & Oceania(Australia&New Zealand)-most EDCs=Asia, S.America & most LIDCs=Africa

In UK-North=higher unemployment, lower income & shorter life expectancy than South. 

Wealthy countries have more money to spend on health & education=better adult literacy & life expectancy-wealth=not guaratee of development

Qatar=richest country in world-rich from selling oil&gas but has relatively low life expectancy-lead to huge construction in recent years(football stadiums-2022 world cup)-

Qatar=not large workforce---->migrant workers from Nepal, India & Bangladesh-By 2022 a million migrant workers will have entered. Qatar-many of migrant workers forced to live in poor, cramped conditions-pay=low

Some claim passports been confiscated and can't go home-large no. died from heart failure from working outdoors in extreme temperatures

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Why are some countries more developed than others?

(H)HUMAN & (P)PHYSICAL factors that influence global uneven development:

  • Population(H)-larger population, easier to develop-larger workforce-isn't good for LIDCs-more mouths to feed
  • Climate(P)-warm, moist climate-good for growing crops&for people to live comfortably
  • Land(P)-flat, fertile land(ash=fertile-near volcanoes&forest fires), suitable for growing crops and building cities
  • Natural Resources(P)-abundance of minerals(oil/coal)can be used for trade or manufacturing

However-none of these factors explain why some countries are more developed than others-Bangladesh-large population-still LIDC

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Country's history=how developed?

Country's history=important factor in determing how developed they are today.....

Colonialism-European countries colonised much of Asia, Africa & S.America-colonies supplied raw materials for Europe

In Caribbean, land was taken from people & turned into large plantations growing crops for Europe-merchants became rich-able to invest in new industries in Europe. African slaves transported to Caribbean-depriving Africa of workforce-colonialism helped Europe develop-slowed down development in other countries

Patterns of trade established during colonial time continue today-->Jamaica's main export=sugar and bauxite-Nigeria's include cocoa and rubber(raw materials) & UK's main exports are 'products' and 'services' = motor vehicles and financial services

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Impacts of Climate change

  • rising sea levels
  • more intense hurricanes
  • warmer temps. & longer heatwaves
  • more unpredictable rainfall & drought

Is real injustice to fact that LIDCs emit such small quantities of greenhouse gases-relatively little impact on world's climate-but face greatest consequences:

  • Melting glaciers-Himalayas-less fresh water,farming.etc.more conflict over water
  • Mosquitos move into higher areas=greater disease
  • Stronger hurricanes(warm water fuels them)=greater flooding
  • Reduced rainfall=fewer crops= increased hunger
  • Sea levels rise=low lying areas under water e.g.Bangladesh, Maldives=migration=overpopulation
  • Increased poverty
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Trade

Factors that make it hard for countries to break out of poverty:

TRADE..way to obtain things a country needs and earn money-->development gap exists between ACs and LIDCs-?

  • increased trade tends to be between ACs
  • ACs produce manufactured goods(worth a lot)whereas LIDCs rely on natural commodities(raw materials)not worth as much
  • price of natural commodities fluctates with supply&demand-price of goods has increased
  • much trade controlled by TNCs(trans-national companies)mainly based in ACs-much of manufacturing for TNCs takes place in LIDCs-most profit=HQ AC
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Debt

DEBT...any country that borrows money=debt-

ACs able to make repayments&still have enough money to spend/invest e.g.USA debt=$360bn.

LIDCs spend all money on debt repayment=nothing left to invest in healthcare/education-holds development back

Since 2000, 30 of world's countries=benfit from 'debt relief'-enables to have more money to spend on essential services

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Political Unrest

POLITICAL UNREST...widespread political dissatisfaction with government-

triggered by :

  • social inequality=rich vs poor
  • corruption=government using public money for personal gain
  • high taxes
  • lack of government spending money on key areas-healthcare, education etc.
  • rising prices od essential items e.g food
  • conflict over ownership of water, land...

Political unrest can develop into civil war-different groups fighting each other-civil war can last for decades-holds back development as: displaces people, disrupts services&production of food&goods.

Civil war between N & S. Sudan=longest(Africa's)-after independence from Britain-N controlled S-forced Islam-peace reached 2005-oil split-2011 S.Sudan independence-2013 new civil war in S.Sudan between government&rebels-thousands killed-millions displaced-production of oil(main export)almost stopped-rival ethnic groups fight for land rights to graze cattle

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TAJIKISTAN-CASE STUDY OF LIDC

Are LIDCs likely to stay poor?-Tajikistan=LIDC

How has Tajikistan developed so far?

  • is in Asia-part of former Soviet Union-gained independence in 1991
  • Life expectancy=65 years
  • HDI 0.624=129th out of 188 countries
  • GNI per capita $2,424
  • has youthful population(high % under 16)-34% under 14

Positives:

  • has lots of rivers-total > 28500km-enables to generate a lot of HEP(hydro electric power)
  • borders 4 other countries (uzbekhistan, afghanistan, china & pakistan)=land locked-could be potential trading partners
  • youthful population-lot of potential of workers-could boost economic growth in future
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Rostow's modernisation theory-1960

 Model=all countries are at different stages of development-one of five stages. Any country in lower stage=less developed-compared to country in higher stage--5 stages....

  • 1. Undeveloped societies="traditional societies"-dominated by subsistence farming-little technology
  • 2."Pre conditions for take-off":farming improves-is 'surplus'=enables reinvestment
  • 3."Take off stage"=industrialisation occurs-majority jobs=factories&infrastructure improves
  • 4."Drive to maturity"=manufactured goods export-to developed countries
  • 5."Age of high mass consumption"=development achieved-citizens live=urban areas&comfortable lifestyle-life expectancy-access to education&healthcare

(http://image.slidesharecdn.com/igcseib-geography-the-rostow-model-29598/95/igcse-geography-industrial-systems-the-rostow-model-2-728.jpg?cb=1287475371)

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Rostow model:Criticisms

Can Rostow's model determine a country's path of economic development? CRITICISMS:

  • model is old(1960) & oversimplified
  • many countries follow zig zag path-not straight line like model
  • money needed for country to move beyond stage 1-happens through international aid-debt repayments restrict further advancements-not taken into account in model
  • UAE developed base on oil reserves-skipped stages 2&3-went straight from 1 to 5 in 10/15 yrs-model can't be applied
  • countries can fall back-e.g Syria-before conflict was middle income country-fallen back to being LIDC

Tajikistan falls into stage 2 of Rostow model-still relies on raw material exports & is yet to industrialise

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Millennium development goals

To what extent has Tajikistan achieved the Millennium development goals?

In 2000 189 world leader agreed&signed Millennium declaration-contained 8 Millennium development goals-should've cut world poverty in half by 2015

(http://globalsolutions.org/files/public/images/millenium-goals.gif)

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Tajikistan's progress towards MDG

Tajikistan's made excellent progress towards most of goals, including:

  • proportion of population below $1 a day fell from 49.4 in 1999 to 6.6 in 2009
  • under 5 mortality rate in 1999 98.0 to 2010 63.3
  • proportion of 1 yr olds immunized against measles in 1999 79.0 by 2010 98.0
  • HIV 15-64 in 1999 0.1 by 2010 0.3
  • mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in 1999 0 by 2012 92.2
  • have made fair progress towards achieving universal primary schooling&halting&reversing spread of TB

Have not met targets to:

  • achieve productive&decent employment & halving proportion without improved drinking-population using safe drinking water source in 1999 60 in 2012 66 
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Reasons for Tajikistan MDG failures

Difficult geographical conditions make country vulnerable to natural disasters e.g mudslides & floods repeated up to 25 times per decade-in very wet years damage from floods&mudslides in Tajikistan=hundreds of millions of dollars-only damage caused by mudslides&floods in 2010 amounted to more than $600 million=undermines country's efforts to achieve international development goals incl.MDG

Problems meeting access to safe water---->only 5% of rural Tajiks have access to safe water-many rely on rivers&open ditches-often fouled by animals, agricultural runoff&human sewage-

Waterborne bacteria-causes diarrhoea&tyhpoid=widespread in Tajikistan-esp.rural areas-situation worsening-infrastructure built by Soviets decaying

Problems achieving productive&decent employment---->over reliance on exportation of perishable goods to make money-doesn't generate much income-buyers have power to set prices-

President Emomali Rahmon ruled since independence&plays large role in economy-main obstacle citied by local&foreign entrepeneurs=inadequate infrastructure-insufficient&unreliable energy supply; weak rule of law,esp.reagarding property rights-overly burdensome tax policy&adminstration

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Sustainable Development Goals-2015

17 Sustainable Development Goals-set in 2015-by UN-more detailed&ambitious-been some criticism that there's too many goals to work towards

(http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/meetings/2015/sdgs-icons-950.jpg?ua=1)

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P/S/E factors-barriers to Tajikistan's development

(P)Political-(S)Social-(E)Environmental

  • landlocked country with no coastline-harder to trade-have to rely on neighbouring countries to allow good in&out
  • (E)is mountainous(93%)-makes building difficult-puts of TNCs
  • (E)much of fresh water comes from glacier melt in rivers-warming climate=less glacier melt=less fresh water
  • (S)has youthful population-providing education=difficult&immunising against childhood disease=too expensive
  • relies on exporting raw materials-doesn't generate great income-sold quickly-no negotiation
  • (P)not seen as democratic-international govt doesn't trust honesty of Tajik president
  • (P)suffered long period of Political Unrest post independence from Soviet Union-5yr civil war-issues with Krygystan-drug trafficking&jihadis in Afghanistan-young Tajiks want to join Islamic State
  • (P)young Tajiks want free speech-fight to get it-could lead to conflict
  • (S)young men-go to Russia-find employment to give Remittances-russian currency dropped
  • many languages spoken-potential for conflict
  • (E)Tajikistan suffers from-droughts,floods&earthquakes on regular basis
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Overview of Tajikistan economic development

Overview of Tajikistan's economic development: Between 2000-2007 Tajikistan's economy grew well - 9% a year -

Between 2014-2015 Tajikistan saw fall in economic growth fell from 6.7% to 4.3%-measures have been introduced and growth is predicted to grow in.

Measures incl.supporting jobs in private sector, building job relevant skills & facilitating access to jobs for vulnerable people and places

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Problem of Trade

  • In 2014, Tajikistan exported $697M & imported $4.8B, resulting in negative trade balance of $4,1B
  • rely on export of single commodity-aluminium - are postives and negatives:

Positives:

  • may attract foreign direct investment from TNCs-may help improve infrastructure-rural areas-where is needed greatest
  • Aluminium TNCs may invest transport links to other countries-increase access for local Tajiks
  • having commodity=links established with trading partners-could lead to other links in future

Negatives:

  • Aluminium is finite resource-runs out?income?
  • price of aluminium fluctuates-Tajiks not sure about income they'll get from selling it
  • Tajikistan not only country that imports aluminium-other countries may do better deal-means Tajikistan doesn't have enough countries to export to
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benefits&problems of TNC investment?

TNC=company that has branches in at least 2 countries-

HQ in AC=source country-

factories in EDCs(mostly)or LIDCs=host countries- because has cheap labour & land

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How does TNC help LIDC?

Benefits

  • TNCs pay taxes to Host country government-money can be invested in infrastructure e.g road, rail links or services like hospitals or schools
  • TNCs provide jobs/income for workers employ in Host countries
  • TNCs can produce cheaper goods-benefiting consumers in Source country
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How does TNC hinder LIDC?

Problems

  • TNCs put own profit first-not host country-often high skilled-high paid jobs done by source country-most money leaves LIDC & goes to source country
  • wages for people in Host country-usually low-people exploited=low wages long hours-why TNC locates there
  • when cheaper host country arrives-TNC leave previous host country, transfer factories-make products even cheaper&increase company profits-leades to unemployment&poverty
  • Some TNCs-particularly petroleum based ones(BP)-damage host country's environment
  • large TNCs=best accountants-result=tax evasion(example=Google, Starbucks and other countries in UK in past)
  • large TNCs can put smaller, local, similar countries out of business as can't compete=host country can actually lose money/income
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advantages&disadvantages of debt relief and...

...International aid in helping countries like Tajikistan develop?

(ODA)Official Development Assistance-given by governments&paid for by taxes

Bi-lateral aid-given by one country to another

Multi-lateral aid-given by more than one country through IMF(International Monetary Fund)

Tied aid-aid given with conditions that receiving country must agree to

Short term emergency relief-to cope with effects of disasters/conflicts

Long term development assistance-helps to improve lives & develop country

Voluntary aid-is given by individuals/companies & distributed by charities and non-government organizations (NGOs)

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advantages&disadvantages of debt relief and...(con

...International aid in helping countries like Tajikistan develop?

Advantages of aid

  • aid is attempt to rebalance global inequality
  • repayment for benefits ACs got from colonialism
  • everyone should have right to essentials of life-aid can help people get these

Disadvantages of aid

  • discourages people from trying to look after themselves-will start to rely on aid
  • Aid givers(donors)may decide what aid to give-may give what is not needed
  • may be given to corrupt government-use for personal gain not country's
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International aid-Tajikistan

  • UK & EU have long sent aid to Tajikistan-invested in helping rural women's lives-given as Tajikistan is important country in the fight against drug trafficking&terrorism as it borders afghanistan
  • UN invested money in trying to reduce HIV&TB prevalence rates-funded vaccine program against TB&funding education programmes for HIV awareness education
  • Russia sent over billion in military weapons to Tajikistan to try help fight against Islamic State
  • with support from UNICEF-mass immunization campaign conducted agianst diphtheria, polio & measles-which has brought no. of diphtheria, polio and measles cases down and eradicated polio all together
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is debt relief positive/negative to help LIDCs dev

Is debt relief positive or negative way of helping LIDCs like Tajikistan develop?

What is international debt?-Money a nation owes to other nations/international organisations like the IMF-often amounts that they have to pay back are greater than their income from exports and aid

How does this impact the ability of a country to develop?-country has to used all income to pay off debt and doesn't have money to invest in infrastructure or services for citizens-education, healthcare&roads remain poor quality so development is harder

If a country can get debt relief that means large sums of money don't need to be paid back and can use money to invest in improving the country instead

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TOP DOWN BOTTOM UP development strategies

Comparing advantages and disadvantages for Tajikistan..most appropriate?

TOP DOWN strategies=expensive & country has to borrow money from World Bank or developed countries-decisions related to any top-down scheme will be made by govt-locals that will be affected by scheme have little say & influence in process

BOTTOM UP strategies=projects planned & controlled by locals to help communities-not expensive because use smaller, more appropriate technology-locals pay for-because project is on smaller scale-environmental damage is often much less

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Tajikistan top down development-Rogun Dam

  • Rogun Dam is 100km north-east of Dushanbe(capital city) along river Vakhsh
  • Rogun Dam will be the tallest in the world at 300m high
  • it will cost $800 million 
  • construction began in 1976 but is nowhere near finished
  • President says it's needed because power shortages have crippled Tajikistan's development
  • to help fund it Tajikistan government encouraging people to buy shares(most don't have money to)
  • Tajik will benefit from more reliable energy supply
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Rogun Dam - positives

Positives for Tajikistan

  • Rogun Dam would make Tajikistan 'energy independent' instead of reliant on Kazakhistan/Uzbekhistan for gas during winter
  • The dam would be source of pride for Tajikistan
  • Flooding will be reduced in Tajikistan & dam will store water so it doesn't flow into Uzbekhistan
  • dam could generate surplus of water during summer which could export for money
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Rogun Dam - negatives

Negatives for Tajikistan

  • 42,000 people-displaced from homes&land because of project-families of resettled-children have to walk 2hrs to school
  • Tajik government seen as very corrupt&hydroelectric electric companies exploit locals for gains
  • due to location in winter water freezes & spin rates in turbines-reduced=less HEP potential
  • project needed loan of $45m-if not completed will have to stay repay money-LIDC=difficult
  • Tajik govt will invest $15m into Rogun Dam-money could've been invested elsewhere(education&healthcare)
  • Tension already exists between Tajikistan& Uzbekhistan-Rogun Dam will increase tension-Rogun Dam increase water shortages-Uzbekhistan need water for cotton production=less income
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BOTTOM UP development strategies

BOTTOM UP STRATEGIES IN TAJIKISTAN: GROW PROJECT

Solar Greenhouse- In Gonchi district(northern Tajikistan)group of women tend to crops in solar greenhouse-in spite of cold weather-crops doing good-produce=tomatoes & cucumbers etc..-provides vital source of food for women's family-surplus is sold-over 6 month $3600 income

Solar drying apricots- In north of Tajikistan families producing dried apricots-increase profit seven times by installing solar drier(provided by Christian Aid)-rising temp. & erratic weather=damages quality of produce-with solar equipment quality=safeguarded & much improved

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BOTTOM UP - Advantages

ADVANTAGES: helps people help themselves...

'Give a man a fish and he'll eat for a day. Teach a man how to fsh and he'll feed himself for the rest of his life.'- Oxfam

  • Important that help given is affordable and no too hi-tech that as soon as it breaks they can't fix it
  • Having a better income means locals can send children to school-better education-better job 
  • Helps people break out of poverty cycle
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BOTTOM UP - Disadvantages

Disadvantages of BOTTOM UP strategies

  • May not be planned systematically-may happen in some places and not others
  • May rely on aid donations from other countries/NGOs - if aid withdrawn=scheme may have to close
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