Duke of Parma

Role in Netherlands

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  • Created by: Alex
  • Created on: 19-03-12 18:34

Parma's achievements

What did Parma achieve?

  • most successful Spanish commander
  • Spanish control of the southern Netherlands was due to his leadership
  • recaptured some 30 towns in 1579-1585
  • brought about the Union of Arras

BUT he failed in his objective to reunite the Netherlands under Spain

Why did Parma do so well?

  • had a powerful, tough army of Flanders
  • rebels were leaderless
  • able to bridge the rivers that had previously blocked other attackers
  • ultimately failed in his plans, did not crush the northern provinces
  • won over the moderate Catholics
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Not happy with William because:

  • he was becoming too powerful because of his new status in society
  • brought in sovereigns, such as Matthias and Anjou, and used them as puppets
  • became an object of suspicion because of puppetry

Parma used this suspicion to get them to go against William and towards him

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The Military Revolution

The Military Revolution – Roberts (historian)

  • great growth in artillery
  • came up with Italianate fortification
  • prevented capture of towns
  • outer rim of bastions, often moated as well
  • only way to capture a town was to surround it, this method of building stopped it

1520, armoured knight no longer wanted, more musketeer men now

warfare becoming increasingly expensive:

  • uniforms
  • food
  • welfare payments
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Foreign Issues

Why was Parma’s task in the Netherlands impossible to achieve?

  • resources were spread too thin
  • not informed enough
  • failed in attacks
  • lack of money a constant worry

Foreign issues pressed upon Parma

  • 1562-98 French were tearing each other apart
  • Huguenots (ruled by Henry of Navarre) went against Catholic League (Duke of Guise), Kings remained in middle
  • Philip really didn’t want Huguenots to win, wanted Catholic League to win
  • Kings could be a danger
  • nightmare scenario was Henry of Navarre becoming King
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  • allowed Sea Beggars to use ports but remained militarily neutral
  • Spanish pouring money into France
  • Elizabeth was target to different Catholic plots
  • 1571 Ridolfi plot
  • 1583 Throckmorton plot
  • 1585 Babington plot
  • all plots wanted Mary Queen of Scots as Queen as she was catholic
  • 1585 had to face Netherlands dangerously close to Parma, an aggressive Spain and support for plots against her so signed Treaty of Nonsuch
  • Whenever English army were up against Parma they were slaughtered
  • 1587 Mary Queen of Scots execution by Elizabeth
  • Philip now believed to be catholic king as he had claim to throne through his past marriage with Bloody Mary
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Quotes on Parma

J.L.Motley Quotes on Parma

‘cool, incisive, fearless, artful’

Parma’s military abilities were ‘unquestionably superior to those of Don John’

‘he had a single and concentrated kind of character’

‘he was no casuist nor pretender to holiness’

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