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Types of drugs and examples


  • Paracetamol
  • Penecillin
  • Insulin

Everyday substances

  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Alcohol

Illegal substances

  • Cannabis
  • Heroin
  • Cocaine
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Drugs and Parkinson's disease

Drug - any chamical that affects the way your body functions.

Legal drugs - carry risks of dependancy and damage > misused.

Parkinson's disease - progressive loss of neurones in part of the brain (produces chemical dopamine).

Symptoms - tremors, stiffness, slow movements etc.

Enzyme in synapse breaks down dopamine, continues > not enough to balance ACh > overall effect - extensive loss of dopamine in brain.

Drug treatments - increase dopamine in brain or oppose action of ACh.

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Drug and what it does

Dopamine replacement drugs > levodope and a chamical > break down in body to form dopamine > chamical ensure right amount.

Drugs that mimic action of dopamine > taken alone before levodopa > reduce long-term side effects.

Drugs stop breakdown of dopamine > used with levodopa > given when dopamine replacement drugs start to lose effectiveness.

Anticholinergic drugs > Blocks action of ACh.

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Diamorphine (heroin) > relieve severe pain > chamical derative of morphine > more solube > penetrates brain more rapidly.

Diamorphine hydrochloride > group opioids > mimic effects naturally occurring pain-reducing chemicals - endorphins > combine with opioid receptors in brain > block transmission of pain signals > less pain felt.

Opioids attach to specific membrane protein - opioid receptor > located on sensory neurone cell mebranes > large concentrations in brain and spinal cord > chain or reactions stimulated > depression of normal activity of neurone for short time > leave receptor > normal neurone function.

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Cannabis > derived from plant > central nervous system depressant > dried leaves (marijuana) > solin resin (hash) > thick liquid from flowers (hash oil).

Uses > therapeutic > relieve symptoms of multiple sclerosis et al > medication for terminally ill > illegal since 1928.

Uses > recreational use > effects > talkativeness, cheerfulness, relaxation etc > helps relax > time and space altered.

Physical dependance > repeated heavy use of drug > change body chemistry > suffer withdrawal symptoms.

Psychological dependance > become more important than other activities > crave drug > find difficult stopping or cutting down.

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