What is an argument from design?
Empirical theory which challenges the origins of our existance.
ORDER + DESIGN + PURPOSE = GOD
Universe is regarded as having an overall purpose achieved from order.
Argument from Analogy
PLATOS CAVE - Group of people living chained to a blank wall with nothing to watch but shadows. The people ascribe forms to these shadows.A philosopher is a person freed and begins to realise that the shadows are not "reality" afterall as he can perceive the truth.
PALEYS WATCH - Watch is complex, intricate and obviously designed. Similar to the Universe. Had to be designed by someone. WEAK ANALOGY.
HUME - Universe = Giant vegetable, organic?
Disorder in the Universe: some plants do not contribute to human life.
If God exists outside space and time and is transcendent how can we have a relationship with him?
Argument from Cause and Effect
None of us were present at creation so how can we know what happened?
Different possibilities: Team of Gods? Barren planets = faulty design? Hume "spun from the bowels of a giant spider"? Vegetable?
Yes we have order but theres the possiblity of EVOLUTION. Could it have all been choas before but we just learnt from mistakes?
The Inductive Argument
Staring from a general example we can then infer a general law/principle from our observations.
Why is the world so adapted to our existence? SWINBURNE - FINE TUNING.
It is the man who seeks purpose in life and ultimate answers = sense of the sacred
If our life had no meaning or we did not seek to find meaning it would be "a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury signifying nothing" SHAKESPEARE.
Argument from Probability
ODDS ON THE UNIVERSE = 10 BILLION TO 1
Probabilities are derived from the size of variables e.g temperature or force. Therefore the conditions for teh Big Bang could have happened over a long timescale rather than one big happening.
THE LOTTERY - feel you've been "chosen" because of the slim odds but it's just chance!!!
HUME - PROBABILITY JUDGMENTS
Based on past experiences and as we have no experience or knowledge of designed/chance worlds calculations cannot be made.