Long lengths of DNA can make up sections called genes. Lots of genes make up a chromosome. We have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell, making 46 - 23 from each parent.

  • A gene is a section of DNA, contains instructions to make a protein
  • Cells make proteins by stringing amino acids in an order
  • 20 amino acids used, make thousands of proteins
  • Genes tell cells in what order to put the amino acids together
  • DNA determines what proteins the cell produces
  • Determines what type of cell it is (red blood cell, skin cell, etc)

Everyone's DNA is unique, except for identical twins and clones.

DNA fingerprinting involves cutting up a strand of someone's DNA into small sections and then separating them on a piece of card. This is used in forensic science (eg to discover whose hair was left at the crime scene) and in paternity testing.

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