Division of labour+power relationships and DV

Instrumental and expressive roles


Instrumental= the man is the breadwinner and head of the family

Expressive= the woman is the homemaker and socialises the children at home (primary socialisation) 

This is based on biology so they think its fair and argue that it is equal but in reality isn't.

A03- New  man by Dunscombe and Marsden says the man has changed with the times, now they do housework and childcare (the stereotypical female jobs).  Women now do more paid work meaning men needed to change as they cant do all the work by themselves. 

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Seperated conjugal roles


This is married couples doing seperate jobs.

Men do paided work and women do housework (the instrumental and expressive roles)

over time a slow change is happening from seperate to joint conjugal roles due to the changes in the norms, values and attitudes of society. 

A03- Joint conjugal roles. Bott  says that the married couple share the housework and both do paid jobs aswell.   They also spend leisure time together. 

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Allowance system

Pahl and Volger

The man earns all the money and gives the woman and allowance to spend only on what the family needs, not herself (women would never have money to spend on things for themselves. 

They both live of his wages, the woman is in poverty.

She only gets money when the man wants to give it to her


A03- Pooling- this means both partners put both wages into one joint account to which they both have access. This could however be unequal due to the fact one could be putting more money into the account and  the other then spending more, making it unequal.

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Decision making


He studed 30 couples who both worked and found their were 3 types of decisions made:

  • Very important- Men make them, they cost a lot, E.g a house, car.
  • Important- Men and women (men have the final say, women basically make no decisions), E.g childrens schools, holiday
  • Not important- women make these, also known as invisible decisions, E.g dinner, bedtimes.

A03- 70% of people studied said all decisions were joint within their relationships. No gender scripts.

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DV- 35 assults

1/6 of all crimes include domestic violence- it is often a repeat offence.

It takes a woman on average 35 assults before reporting to the police because of-

  • Love
  • Fear, reporting normally leads to no police action as they don't interfere into the private sphere
  • Promised not to do again
  • Financial, woman may be dependent on the man
  • Children/family life
  • Some people believe police shouldn't introvine into private life.
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Radical explanation

  • DV is inevitable in patriarcal society- as it allows men to show dominance
  • Males are socialised to be more agressive
  • Marriage allows males to perform domestic abuse- a partiarcal situation- the man believes they have the right and are in control as the woman takes his name, moves into his house
  • Womens jobs= housework and if done badly the man may turn violent as this is seen as the womens work.

A03- WC material deprivation- diet, health and behaviour- wc parents won't pay for education toys so the children turn to free activities such as fighting so this instils the values of violence into them from a young age.

18% of men experience domestic violence too but radical feminists ignore this. 

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Material explanations (deprivation)

  • Lack of money- money issues are a large cause of tension and stress which leads to domestic violence as a way to relieve anger

Men will be tense as they will have to do more work to bring more money as they are the breadwinner, creates more anger

  • Most likely to effect wc or ethnic minorities as they are pushed out of the labour maket which will create tensions

Such as racism- no work visa, lack of education similar to GCSE's.

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Marxist feminist explanation

  • Ansley says that women are 'takers of ****' 

This leads to domestic violence as males release tensions at home on the women through the violence so he doesnt take it out at work

~Safety value

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