Distinctive Landscapes

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  • Created by: Riya.b123
  • Created on: 08-03-19 16:59

UK Landscape

- Upland areas mostly found in North & West - generally formed of hard rock - resist erosion

- Many upland areas are glaciated areas - snowdonia - land often steep - cooler & wetter climates - thin soil allows vegetation to grow - sheep farming - quarrying - tourism

- Lowland areas mostly found in South & East - generally soft rock - landscape often flatter - warmer & drier climate - vegetation easily grows - mostly urban areas & industries

- Glaciated Landscapes - mostly upland in north-west

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Weathering

- Mechanical - happens when temp alternatates above & below 0C - water gets into cracks of rocks - water freezes & expands which puts pressure on rock -when water thaws contracts - releases pressure - repeats until rock breaks

- Carbonation - rainwater has CO2 dissolved in it - weak carbonic acid with rock containing calcium carbonate 

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Mass Movement

- Causes coasts to retreat rapidly 

- More likely to happen when material is full of water

- Acts as a lubricant

- Makes material heavier

- Undercutting of slope increases chance of mass movement

- 2 types of mass movement - Slides & Slumps

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Erosion

- Hydraulic Action - waves crash against coast and rocks & compress air in rocks - pressure - repeated compression widens crack - rock breaks 

- Abrasion - particles rub against rock in sea bed - removing small peices - wearing them away - rivers

- Attrition - particles (rocks) - smash against each other - break into smaller fragments

- Solution - Dissolved CO2 makes water slightly acidic 

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Transportation

- Traction - Large particles (boulders) pushed along river bed

- Suspension - Small particles (silt & clay) are carried along by water

- Saltation - Pebble sized particles bounce along river bed by force of water

- Solution - Soluble materials dissolved in water are carried along

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Deposition

- Coastal Deposition - constructive waves carry material along the swash up to the coast - backwash takes very little material back down the coast - little erosion - amount deposited increases when lots of erosion - lots of material - lots of transportation

- River Deposition - river slows down - volume of water falls - amount of eroded material increases - water is shallower - river reaches it mouth 

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Headlands & Bays

- Form where there are alternating bands of resistant & less resistant rock along coast

- Less resistant rock erodes quickly - forms bays - gentle slope

- Resistant rock eroded slowly  - forms headlands - steep sides - cracks 

- Waves crash into headlands - hydraulic action & abrasion - causes cave to form - further erosion - cave breaks through headland - arch - continued erosion until collapse - stacks 

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Beaches

- Formed by deposition 

- Found on coasts

- Formed by constructive waves - depositing materials such as sand & shingle

- Sand beaches - flat - wide - backwash can move sand particles - long & gentle slope 

- Shingle beaches - steep - narrow - shingle particles are large - backwash can't move them up and down - create a steep slope 

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Longshore Drift

- Forms spits - waves follow direction of prevailing wind - hit coast at an angle - swash carries material - backwash carries material at right angles - overtime zigzags along coast

- Transports sand & shingle past bend - deposits in sea

- Strong winds can curve at end of spit

- Sheltered area behind spit - protected from waves - vegetation grows - overtime becomes salt marsh

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Dorset Coast - Case Study

- Popular tourist destinaton in Southern England - Called Jurassic Coast - lots of fossils

- Variety of coastal landforms - sandy beaches 

- The Foreland, Old Harry & His Wife - Foreland made of hard rock - headland collapsed to form stack (Old Harry) - Stump (Wife) - Weathering - Biological weathering

- Lulworth Cove - small bay - formed in Limestone - behind limstone is clay which eroded to form bay - limestone cliffs vulnerbale to mass movement

- Durdle Door - arch - hard limestone - cave developed into arch - mechanical -chemical - biological weathering

- Chesil Beach - type of spit - longshore drift - behind is a shallow lagoon

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Dorset Coast Continued

- Warm, dry summers - mild, wet winters

- Salt weathering is common in summer - high evaporation 

- Mild winter - freeze thaw weathering less common 

- Exposed to prevailing wind - storms - destructive waves - increase in hydraulic action 

- Low amounts of rainfall annually - very wet winters - vulnerable to carbonation weathering  - increase in mass movement 

- Coastal Management - Groynes - stops loss of beach material - makes beach narrower - more erosion - Sea walls - prevent erosion -removes sedient - Beach Replenishments - wider beaches - slow waves - costly 

- Quarries vulnerable to chemical weathering - gravel removed from Chesil beach - Vegetation trampled 

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River Basin

- Seperated by a watershed 

- Key features -

Tributary - source - mouth - course -

- channels & valleys which erode landscape - transport material to somewhere it is deposited 

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V - Shaped Valleys

- Formed by vertical Erosion in Upper Course - fast, flowing water allows boulders & rough particles to be transported along river bed

- Causes downward erosion of river channel by abrasion

- Valley sides are exposed to weathering - weathered materials fall into river channel causing further erosion 

- River does not have energy to erode sideways so erodes vertically - deepens river valley 

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Waterfalls & Gorges

- Soft rock eroded by hydraulic action more than hard rock - creates  an overhang 

- Hard rock eventually collapses into plunge pool - more erosion - forms waterfall

- Collapsed hard rock erodes more by abrasion 

- Overtime more undercutting causes more collapses - waterfall retreats - leaving a steep sided gorge 

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Meanders

- Formed by erosion & deposition 

- Flow of water faster on outside of bend - river channel is deeper - less friction to slow water

- More erosion on outerside of bend - forming river cliffs

- Flow of water slower inside of bend - river channel is shallower - more friction

- Eroded material deposited inside of bend- forms slip of slopes 

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Oxbow Lakes

- Formed from meanders

- Erosion of meander causes outside of bends to get closer until small bit of land left between bends 

- River breaks through land - during flood - river flows along shortest course

- Deposition cuts of meander - forms ox-bow lake 

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Floodplains

- When river floods onto floodplain - water slows - deposits eroded material - this builds up floodplain

- Meanders migrate across floodplains - wider - flatten valley floor

- Deposition happens on slipe of slopes of meanders - builds up floodplains

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Levees

- Natural Embankments 

- During flood eroded material deposited over floodplain

- Heaviest material deposited closest to river channel

- Overtime deposited material builds up - creates levees along edge of channel

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Eden Basin - Case Study

- North - West England  - Source is hills in Cumbria - mouth at Scottish Borders - faces prevailing wind - wettest part of UK

- Rural area - popular with tourists - variety of river landforms

- Waterfalls - gorge - V-shaped valleys - Floodplains - Meanders 

- Mild winters - higher ground usually freezes - freeze thaw weathering  upper course - mass movement - landslides common - material added to river 

- Intense rainfall makes ground saturated - less stable - volume of water increases rapidly - increase in transportaton - more erosion 

Coastal management - flood walls & embankments - prevents formation of meanders - Reservoirs - reduce buildup of floodplain - Planting Trees - reduces flooding - reduce erosion - Channel Management - artificial meanders- Deforestation has cleared many upland areas - increase of surface run off 

 

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