Displacement and velocity time graphs
Velocity = Displacement / Time.
Gradient = Velocity
Velocity time graphs
Acceleration = Change in velocity / Time taken
Gradient = acceleration
Area under the graph = displacement.
- The transmitter of a motion sensor sends out pulses of ultrasound and infared radiation that are picked up by the reciever.
- The distance of the transmitter from the sensor is continuously recorded.
- The sensor is interfaced with a computer with data sampling software to measure the position of the trolley at fixed time intervals.
- The trolley may be pulled along the runway at constant velocity or allowed to accelerate down an inclined plane.
- Displacement-time graphs can be drawn from the results.
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Investigating the motion of a bouncing ball
- The transmitter is attached to a basketball using blu-tack.
- The reciever is clamped in position vertically above the transmitter.
- The motion sensor uses a mixture of infared and ultrasonic signals to measure accurately the distance between the transmitter and the reciever.
- The sensor is activated, and the ball is dropped and allowed to bounce two or three times.
- The ball must not rotate and stay beneath the reciever at all times.
- The data can be displayed as a distance-time graph.
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