Origin of disparities
Ethnicity: some ethnic or religious groups can become marginalized from the rest of the society, and struggle to escape from poverty. This may be because the political leaders are from a certain etnic group and favour people from that group. Immigrant groups are also discriminated against, and only be able to work in the informal sector
i.e. in Kenya, 30% of the muslism population had less than 4 years of schooling, whereas only 6% of the protestant/christians had less than 4 years of schooling.
Residence: the place of birth is important in determining your wealth. In Japan for example, you are more likely to be free from conflict, receive an education, have a good diet, a house and a job & income, so in turn your are more likely to be fit and healthy
However, if you live in an informal settlement (i.e. favela in Rio), you are unlikley to have electricity, water supply, sewers and/or legal ownserhip of the land or house. Therefore, you are more likely to suffer from illnesses, be affected by natural disaster and risk eviction. If this is the case you are less likely to be able to work, secure loans and increase your wealth.
Origin of disparities (2)
Parental education: if your parents are educated, this means they are more likely to have a good-paying job and can afford all basic needs (housing, food etc...), and ensure you have a good educaiton as well to give you a headstart in life.
Income: if a country/individual already has a good income or wealth, it becomes easier to generate more wealth. Individuals can ensure to have a good residence and a healthy diet, but can also borrom money more easily to invest.
Employment (formal and informal): If a country has high unemployment and or high underemployment then the country is more likely to suffer from poverty. Also if a country has a large informal economy it might suffer from poverty because workers are exploited and don't receive any benefits if they are hurt and unable to work.
Land ownsership: Private ownership of land is an important factor in allowing people to grow food and generate income. If you have land you can at a minimum live a subsistence lifestyle, but more likely be able to sell surpluses or secure a loan against the value of land. Sometimes females may struggle to avoid poverty because they are unable to inherit or own land