steps needed for a pathogen to to cause disease:
- pathogen must be transmitted.
- gain entery into the body.
- evade the defences.
- harm the host.
how pathogens harm the host:
- reproduce inside the host, killing the cell.
- produce toxins.
the non-specific immune system:
- non-specific methods of destroying foreign bodies. (inflammation and phagocytosis)
- digestion of microbes by phagocytes (large white blood cells).
- surround and engulf it, microbe is now trapped in a phagosome.
- phagosome fuses with lysosomes, killing it.
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