AO1 1 - Serotonin
- Disruption of serotonin levels leads to increased anxiety = trigger AN
- Bailer - high levels of serotonin in women with AN.
- highest levels in those with the most anxiety.
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AO1 2 - Dopamine
- increased dopamine in the basal ganglia alters the way people interpret rewards.
- individuals with AN find it difficult to associate good feelings with things that are usually pleasurable.
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AO1 3 - Pregnancy and birth complications
- Inadequate nutrition during pregnancy among mothers with an eating disorder may act as a diathesis for the development of AN in the child.
- Lindberg and Hjern - significant association between birth complications and the development of AN.
- Birth complications such as lack of oxygen may cause brain damage = impair neurodevelopment
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AO1 4 - Adapted to flee
- symptoms of AN reflect evolved adaption in response to local famine conditions.
- Increasing desire for food must be 'turned off' to increase their chances of survival by moving to a more favourable environment.
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AO2 1 - SSRIs
- ineffective when used with AN patients
- However, some studies report that SSRIs may help to elevate mood and reduce some of the obsessive symptoms of anorexia.
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AO2 2 - dopamine support
- Castro Fornieles - adolescent girls with AN had higher levels of HVA.
- However, Wang found that obese individuals had lower than normal levels of dopamine - suggesting an inverse relationship between levels of dopamine and body weight.
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AO2 3 - Complications support
- Favaro - the perinatal complications associated with risk of developing AN were: obstructed blood supply in the placenta, early eating difficulties and low birth weight.
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AO2 4 - Parental feelings of guilt
- biological explanations reduce parental feelings of guilt.
- People realise they are dealing with treatable dysfuntional biology, rather than a dysfunctional family.
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AO2 5 - IDA
- Biological explanations offer the possibility for treatments involving bringing neurotransmitter levels into balance.
- Bilogical causes can help with insurance payouts
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AO2 6 - Evolutionary limitations
- AN decreases fertility and makes reproduction more difficult
- Evolutionary explanations do not fully explain how AN would have been passed down through natural selection.
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IDA 2 - Gender bias
- 25% of adults with eating disorders are male.
- many studies focus on women
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