Diet and Nutrition

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Vitamins 4

Fat Soluble:

Vitamin E:

  • helps protect against heart disease 
  • E.g. eggs, nuts, seeds, cereal products

Vitamin K: 

  • helps to clot blood 
  • E.g. green vegetables 
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Vitamins 2

Water Soluble:

  • Vitamins B & C
  • Dissolve in water - cannot be stored in body 

Folic Acid: 

  • helps prevent premature birth 
  • E.g. green vegetables 

Vitamin B: 

  • helps release energy from food
  • E.g. meat, fortified breakfast cereals, milk, eggs, potatoes 
  • Deficiency - causes slow growth - severe could cause beri-beri 

Vitamin C:

  • maintains body connective tissue - healthy skin 
  • heals wounds
  • helps iron absorption
  • E.g. citrus fruits
  • Deficiency - causes scurvy 
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Food Choice 4

Religious issues:

Hinduism - cow is sacred - usually vegetarians - many fasting days 

Sikhism - similar to hindus - more meat is eaten

Islam - pig is considered unclean - other animals must be slaughtered in a particular way - Halal

Jews - meat must be specially slaughtered - Kosher - no pork - meat and dairy cannot be eaten together

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Vitamins

Micronutrients > Vitamins 

  • made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen 

Functions: 

  • maintain health
  • prevent deficiency diseases - e.g. beri beri and rickets
  • regulate the repair of body cells
  • combat the ageing process
  • help to process carbohydrates and release energy 
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Carbohydrates 7

Sources of Fibre: 

Insoluble Fibre: 

  • absorbs water - increases bulk - soft and bulky faeces 
  • E.g. wholemeal flour, wholegrain breakfast cereals, pasta, brown rice and some fruits and veg

Soluble Fibre:

  • slows digestion and absorption of carbohydrates - helps control blood sugar levels - stops hunger
  • reduce blood cholesterol levels - reduce risk of heart disease
  • E.g. oats, peas, beans, lentils, most fruits and veg 
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Minerals

Micronutrients > Minerals 

  • Calcium, Iron, Sodium, Phosphorus, Fluoride

Functions: 

  • strong bones and teeth
  • controlling body processes - e.g. nerve impulses
  • essential part of body fluids and cells
  • form part of enzymes and other proteins - necessary for energy release 

Calcium:

  • strong bones and teeth 
  • E.g. dairy products, sardines, white bread, nuts 
  • young children need a lot 
  • Deficiency - rickets and osteoporosis (weak bones)
  • works with Vitamin D 
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Minerals 2

Iron: 

  • form red blood cells - carry oxygen around body - haemoglobin
  • E.g. red meat, wholemeal bread, dried fruit, plain chocolate 
  • stored in liver 
  • Deficiency - anaemia - women and children most common 

Sodium:

  • no more than 6g a day - maintains correct concentration of body fluids 
  • E.g. table salt, cooked meats, bacon, salty snacks 
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Food Choice 3

Cultural Preferences: 

Cultural Group - group of people that share the same norms, beliefs and values

Determined by: availability of cheap, locally grown food products 

E.g.

  • Rice - China, India, Japan 
  • Potato - Britain
  • Yams - Africa
  • Pasta - Italy
  • Bread - Europe
  • Noodles - China 
  • Unleavened bread (naan, chapattis) - India, Middle East 

Vary regionally - local availability and different lifestyles 

Manufacturers - respond to demand 

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Food Choice 2

Cultural Preferences: 

Cultural Group - group of people that share the same norms, beliefs and values

Determined by: availability of cheap, locally grown food products 

E.g.

  • Rice - China, India, Japan 
  • Potato - Britain
  • Yams - Africa
  • Pasta - Italy
  • Bread - Europe
  • Noodles - China 
  • Unleavened bread (naan, chapattis) - India, Middle East 

Vary regionally - local availability and different lifestyles 

Manufacturers - respond to demand 

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Fats and Oils 4

Trans fatty acids:

  • Man-made molecules - hydrogen added to vegetable oils - Hydrogenation
  • Used to make solid margarine from oil 
  • Behave like saturated fats - raise cholesterol level
  • Very bad for cardiovascular system and Increase risk of breast cancer

Essential fatty acids:

  • Cannot be made by the body
  • Important for healthy functioning - need right balance in diet
  • Help regulate body processes - blood clotting, control inflammation 
  • Omega 3:
  • Oily fish, seeds, walnut oil, green leafy vegetables 
  • Protect the heart 
  • Omega 6 
  • vegetables, fruits, grains, chicken, seeds
  • Lower blood cholesterol in the blood 
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Food Choice

Factors:

  • peer pressure 
  • food scares - reports in the media that may cause people to stop eating certain foods
  • lifestyles - demand for food that is easy to prepare
  • health - making changes to improve our health 
  • religious/moral beliefs - religions often have food laws - morally wrong to kill animals 
  • storage and cooking facilities - facilities may be limited 
  • personal choice - we are influenced by organoleptic qualities 
  • regional variations 
  • food trends - we may be persuaded to buy certain products
  • cultural - eating patterns vary according to beliefs, values where we live and foods available
  • your skills 

Availability:

A wide variety is available due to technological developments 

Cost:

Save money by buying special offers/buying short shelf life/ using cheaper proteins 

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Minerals 3

Water:

  • 65% of body is water 
  • Deficiency - thick blood - difficult to pump - death 

Functions:

  • regulate body temperature - sweat 
  • helps kidneys flush out harmful excess or foreign substances - urine
  • transports nutrients - oxygen, carbon dioxide 
  • needed in all body processes - e.g. digestion 
  • Fluoride - added to strengthen teeth - found in drinking water, toothpaste and tea 
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Vitamins 3

Fat Soluble:

  • Vitamins A, D, E & K
  • can be stored in the body 

Vitamin A:

  • good for night vision
  • E.g. oily fish, cheese, eggs, milk, butter 
  • Deficiency - could cause blindness 
  • excess may lead to liver and bone damage 

Vitamin D:

  • strong bones and teeth 
  • works with calcium 
  • E.g. sunlight, margarine, oily fish 
  • can cause rickets 
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Carbohydrates

Macronutrient > Carbohydrates

  • Formed from Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen 
  • Three forms: Sugar, Starch, and Fibre (NSP)

Functions:

  • Energy - broken down into glucose during digestion
  • Dietary fibre - non-starch polysaccharide- help digestion 
  • Sweeten and flavour food  

 

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Carbohydrates 6

Polysaccharides:

Fibre/NSP:

  • non-digestible cellulose - found in plant foods
  • cannot be digested - passes through digestive system 
  • absorbs moisture - provides bulk 
  • pushes foods through system - helps 'clean' walls of the intestine of bacteria 

Functions:

  • holds water - keeps faeces soft and bulky 
  • prevent bowel disorders - e.g. constipation, bowel cancer, diverticular disease, appendicitis and haemorrhoids 
  • help control body weight - filling
  • lower blood cholesterol 

Too little fibre - constipation or diverticular disease - Diverticular disease - lining of intestine becomes distorted and inflamed 

Intake: should be 18g a day - more needed by women - we only consume 12g 

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Fats and Oils 3

Unsaturated:

  • soft or liquid at room temperature
  • lower melting point

Monounsaturated:

  • 1 pair of carbon atoms and 1 hydrogen atom - capable of taking 1 more H atom
  • Go solid in refrigerator
  • Found in animal and vegetable fats
  • Considered healthier - lower blood cholesterol, reduce risk of diabetes and lower rate of cancer

Polyunsaturated:

  • 3 pairs of carbon atoms - capable of taking more H atoms 
  • Will not go solid in refrigerator
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Carbohydrates

(http://s33.postimg.org/ola3frmsf/Screen_Shot_2016_05_29_at_11_30_29.png)

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Carbohydrates 3

Simple sugars:

Disaccharides:

Lactose:

  • found in milk 
  • E.g. ice cream

Maltose:

  • fermentation of cereal grains 
  • used in food production and as a dietary supplement 
  • E.g. beer

Sucrose:

  • most common disaccharide
  • white crystalline substance - cane sugar 
  • provides energy - no other benefits 
  • E.g. caramel 
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Carbohydrates 2

Simple Sugars:

Monosaccharides: 

  • simpler carbohydrate - quickly absorbed - faster energy provided

Glucose: 

  • fruits and vegetables
  • used by athletes - tablet or powder form - fast energy
  • E.g. lucozade

Fructose:

  • similar in structure to glucose
  • fruits and plants - mainly honey
  • sweetest sugar - replace sucrose - less sugar needed to provide same sweetness 
  • E.g. runny honey

Galactose:

  • formed during digestion of lactose (milk sugar)
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Carbohydrates 5

Polysaccharides:

  • complex carbohydrates - formed from hundreds of glucose molecules strung together 
  • provide energy 
  • should be 50% of daily energy needs 

Starches: 

  • found in grain products - e.g. bread, rice, cereals, pasta and some fruits and veg
  • take longer than sugars to digest - feel full for longer
  • all starch - from plant sources

Functions: 

  • Energy - broken down into simple sugars
  • Bulk 
  • Feeling of fullness
  • Excess converted to fat 
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Protein

Macronutrient > Protein 

  • Growth - children & pregnant women
  • Repair - tissues - after illness, accidents 
  • Maintenance - renewal of cell proteins for people of all ages 
  • Enzymes - vital for metabolism 
  • Hormones - regulate bodily functions
  • Secondary source of energy - excess amino acids used

Protein Deficiency: 

  • Stops children's growth 
  • Digestive upsets - enzymes not produced 
  • Liver fails 
  • Muscles become weak - thin limbs, soft tummy 

Kwashiorkor - protein energy malnutrition disease - Child is weaned from breast milk to a diet low in protein  

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Carbohydrates 4

Intrinsic Sugar - found in cells of fruits and vegetables

Extrinsic Sugar - sugars which you can see - found in any desserts - e.g cane sugar, syrup 

Problems:

  • Obesity
  • Tooth Decay - bacteria (plaque) + sucrose = acid ~ causes holes in teeth (decay) 
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Fats and Oils 2

Fats:

  • large molecules made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen 
  • composed of fatty acids and glycerol 

Saturated:

  • 1 carbon and 2 hydrogen atoms combined
  • Solids at room temperature
  • Too much - high blood cholesterol - coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity

Cholesterol:

  • The consistency of soft wax 
  • Produced in the liver
  • Transported around body in blood
  • Too much - deposited on the walls of arteries - narrowing - less efficient 
  • Causes coronary heart disease
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Nutrients

Macronutrients - Needed in large quantities - form the bulk of our diet

E.g. Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates 

Micronutrients - Needed in very small quantities - vital to health 

E.g. Vitamins, Minerals 

Government guidelines - improve diet and lifestyle

Reduce cancer, coronary heart disease, strokes, diabetes and obesity

Deficiencies or Excesses - result in diet-related medical conditions  

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Fats and Oils

Macronutrient > Fats

Lipids - fats and oils 

Oils - fats at room temperature 

Functions:

  • Energy 
  • Structure of cells
  • Insulation
  • Protect vital organs
  • Source of fat-soluble vitamins 
  • Gives food texture and flavour
  • Helps us feel full - satiated 

Sources:

  • Vegetable sources: fruits e.g. avocados and pears, nuts and pulses e.g peanuts, seeds 
  • Animal sources: meat and meat products e.g. lard and suet, dairy products, fish e.g. salmon
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Food Choice 5

Social issues: 

  • people spend less time preparing food 
  • people choose to buy more ready meals
  • an increase in eating out
  • family eating at different times

Factors:

  • more mothers employed
  • more people live alone
  • people travel further for work
  • people have more social activities
  • convenience foods - more flexible lifestyles 
  • wide variety of food 
  • restaurants 
  • less emphasis on eating together
  • cost - limits choice is poor 
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Food Choice 5

Recent trends:

  • increase in authentic ethnic foods 
  • more sandwiches being eaten
  • healthy eating claims
  • variety of vegetable dishes is increasing
  • healthier low-fat versions 

Future trends:

  • greater variety of choice and convenience 
  • demand for healthier foods and organic ingredients
  • more 'home-made' products 
  • eco-friendly packaging
  • indulgent foods 
  • less meat - more fruit and veg consumption 
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Food Choice 6

Genetically modified foods:

Advantages:

  • improvements to quality and quantity of food
  • grow in adverse conditions
  • herbicide and insect resistance
  • high nutritional value 
  • cheaper to produce 

Disadvantages:

  • long-term safety unknown
  • environmental concerns - pollen does not stop in one place
  • ethics - labelling in more than 1% of gm food 
  • lack of communication between provider and consumer 
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Special Dietary Needs

Babies:

  • totally dependent on parents 
  • milk is ideal 
  • nutritious, appetising, easy to prepare, without additives, low in sugar, hygienic, safe, and reasonably priced food needed

Toddlers: 

  • grow fast - require lots of energy
  • complex carbohydrates 
  • balanced diet 
  • encouraged to try new foods 
  • easy to hold, available in suitable sized portions, interesting shapes, colour, textur and flavour 

School-aged children:

  • influenced by media and peer group
  • meet current dietary guidelines 
  • filling food 
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Food Choice 7

Moral issues:

Fair Trade: 

  • guarantees that disadvantaged producers are getting a better deal
  • help improve working and living conditions

Traidcraft:

  • use only ethically produced materials and ingredients
  • help producers and manufacturers in developing countries 

Soil Association:

  • organic farming - no genetically engineered ingredients - natural fertilisers only 
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Food Choice 8

Farming Methods: 

Conventional Farming:

  • range of modern technology 
  • Intensive farming - increases use of technology - large scale 
  • maximum output on small area of land 
  • 'Factory farming' 
  • Some believe it in unethical - poor standards of living for animals - other disagree

Free-range Poultry and Eggs - access to outdoors for majority of lives - cost more - reared for longer - more land required - yields are lower 

Red Tractor Symbol - assures high standards of food safety, hygiene, animal welfare and environmental protection 

(http://www.redtractor.org.uk/images/content/41_160x160.jpg)

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Special Dietary Needs 2

Teenagers: 

  • becoming aware of environmental, moral, economic and health issues
  • peer pressure, body image, media 
  • rapid body growth - energy needed - especially boys 
  • mineral iron - girls - menstruation 
  • peak bone mass - sufficient calcium and phosphorus needed 
  • affordable, fashionable, quick and easy to prepare, suited to busy energetic lifestyle 

Adults:

  • vary depending on lifestyle and occupation
  • consume too much energy - weight gain
  • lower-in-fat, salt or sugar foods 
  • luxury products 

Single people:

  • small packs, ready or partly made products - easy to store 
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Special Dietary Needs 5

Diabetes:

  • glucose in the blood stream is not balanced correctly 
  • glucose is carried by blood to all body cells - energy 
  • insulin - hormone produced by pancreas - controls amount of glucose 
  • high-fibre, starchy carbohydrate foods - low in sugar foods needed 

Nut allergy: 

  • anaphylactic reaction could occur - blood vessels leak and difficulty breathing
  • even the smallest amount of nut contact during food production must be noted

Coeliac disease (gluten allergy):

  • reaction to protein glucose - cereals, wheat, barley, rye and oats 
  • damages lining of intestines - prevents absorption of other nutrients 
  • gluten used as thickening 

Lactose intolerance: 

  • cannot digest milk sugar lactose - abdominal pain and diarrhoea 
  • avoid dairy milk and milk products 
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Special Dietary Needs 3

Senior citizens:

  • low income
  • loss of appetite - appealing food 
  • smaller quantities
  • easy to open packaging
  • easy to prepare food 

Pregnant women:

  • protein - growth of baby
  • calcium and vitamin D - baby's bone and tooth development
  • folic acid - make new cells in baby 
  • iron - blood supply for baby
  • fruits and vegetables - vitamin C and fibre
  • not too many fats and sugar - doesn't gain weight 
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Special Dietary Needs 4

Vegetarians:

  • moral, religious, or medical reasons 

Lacto-ovo: 

  • not eat anything involving killing an animal 
  • no meat, meat products fish, lard, suet, fish oils, gelatine
  • will eat eggs, milk, cheese, butter, cream, yoghurt
  • no problem obtaining essential amino acids or vitamins and minerals 

Vegans: 

  • avoid all animal products - meat, fish, eggs, cheese, dairy milk, cream 
  • will eat nuts, pulses, cereals, vegetables and fruits
  • must ensure they have a nutrionally balanced meals
    • proteins
    • vitamin D
    • calcium, phosphorus, iron
    • vitamin B12 
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Protein 2

HIGH BIOLOGICAL VALUE 

  • contain all essential amino acids 
  • animal sources - meat, fish, poultry, dairy, offal, game 
  • soya - soya mince, tofu, Textured Vegetable Protein 
  • Quorn - mycoprotein 

LOW BIOLOGICAL VALUE

  • contain some essential amino acids
  • vegetable sources - cereals, peas, beans, pulses, nuts, seeds 
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