Samuel & Byrant
AIM: To challenge Piaget's findings by altering the method used by Piaget
METHOD: lab experiment
SAMPLE: 252 boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 8.5. Divided into 4 age groups of 63 , with mean ages of:
5 years 3 months
6 years 3 months
7 years 3 months
8 years 3 months
Each group was divided into 3 subgroups which underwent a different condition, which were:
2. One judgement
3 Fixed array control
3 materials used are: mass, volume and number
Each child was given 4 trials with each kind of material & the order of the tests was systematically varied between the children. Therefore there are 3 IV. The 3 conditions, the 4 age groups & the 3 kinds of materials used. The DV was the number of errors made by the children
Bandura, Ross & Ross
Background: social learning theory
AIM: to demonstrate that if children were passive witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult they would imitate this aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity
1. Children exposed to aggressive models will reproduce aggressive acts resembling those of the models.
2. Children exposed to non-aggressive models will reproduce less aggressive acts.
3. Children will imitate the behaviour of a same-gender model to a greater degree than a model of the opposite gender.
4. Boys will be more predisposed than girls towards imitating aggression
METHOD: lab experiment, matched pairs & in 3 stages
SAMPLE: 36 boys & girls aged 37 to 69 months (mean = 52 months)
3 major conditions; the control group, the group exposed to the aggressive model & the group exposed to the passive model. 2 experimental groups, which consisted of children who were exposed to the adult role models, were further sub divided by their gender, & by the gender of the model they were exposed to
Background: psychosexual stages of development
AIM: to report the findings of the treatment of a five-year-old boy for his phobia of horses
METHOD: case study
SAMPLE: little Hans (1 boy)
His father reported to Freud via correspondence & Freud gave directions as how to deal with the situation based on his interpretations of the father's reports
This study is also an example of action research. Action research is any method whereby part of the purpose of the researcher is to influence or change the participant's behaviour
Hans was studied for around 2 years & had many fantasies which made Freud conclude, Hans was suffering from the Oedipus Complex.