Development dilemmas

  • Created by: Holly45
  • Created on: 21-05-15 11:32


  • a measure of a countries wealth and how it is generated
  • gross domestic product is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a counties borders in a time period
  • gross domestic product per capita is the total income of a country pet year divided by the number of people in the country
  • education: literacy rates and years in school
  • health: number of doctors
  • diet
  • population: fertility and mortality rates, structure of population and dependency ratio
  • access to safe drinking water
  • protection for the environment
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Development indicators

  • combines life expectancy, education, average length of schooling and GDP per capita
  • combined to be ranked from 0-1
  • the closer to 1 you are, the more developed you are
  • doesn't just rely on wealth
  • easy to compare
  • reduces everything to one number
  • where your money is safest
  • scale of 10 (honest) to 0
  • amount of women at work or with qualifications
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Development gap

  • Brandt line in 1980
  • wealthy North (HIC's)
  • major resources of raw materials in the middle income countries, encouraged investment and development
  • in the 1990's there was rapid development in Asia such as Hong kong and Singapore
  • much of the growth is due to the investment of transnational corporations
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  • death rate per 1000 was 12.8 in 2010
  • life expectancy was 52.3 in 2010
  • maternal mortality per 100,000 births was 460 in 2010
  • no coastline means not port for trading
  • 800km away from the nearest port (Nacala in Mozambique)
  • the train line is slow and expensive
  • since 1920, 20% of adults have become infected
  • TRADE:
  • suffers from unfair international trade laws
  • if Malawi processes it's coffee its more expensive
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How countries develop

  • ROSTOW MODERNISATION THEORY: theories that build on the idea that the rate of development of a country is to do with the internal structures, governance and culture
  • GUNDER FRANK DEPENDANCY THEORY: theories that build upon the idea that the rate of development of a country is due to its relationships with other countries
  • TRADITIONAL SOCIETY: subsistence economy out put not traded or recorded. High levels of agriculture and labour intense agriculture
  • PRE-CONDITIONS: development of mining industries. Increase in capital use agriculture. Necessity of external growth
  • TAKE OFF: increasing industrialisation and further growth in savings and investment. Employment in agriculture declines
  • DRIVE TO MATURITY: growth is self sustaining. Industry more diversified and increase in levels of technology
  • HIGH MASS CONSUMPTION: high output levels. High employment in service sectors
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Top down strategies

  • decision makers look at the bigger picture to identify needs and opportunities
  • local people are told what is happening but have no say in whether it will happen or not
  • in India.
  • it offered HYU seeds instead of the traditional lower yeilding varieties which had sometimes not produced enough food and lead to hunger
  • HYU's were developed by scientists
  • India can export rice
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Bottom up strategies

  • experts working with local communities to identify their needs
  • giving local people control in improving their lives
  • intermediate technology
  • ASTRA is a recent development project in rural areas
  • they found that most rural families daily routine takes a long time
  • rural girls have little education and few complete primary school
  • cow dung has a high value becuase it produces a gas called biogas
  • families can use this and gain from this becuase: there is less time needed to collect it, there's not ash produces, heat is instant and there is less smoke
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