Development Dilemmas

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  • Created by: georgiad
  • Created on: 06-06-13 13:38

Investigating India - the urban core


  • Poorest state - 86% live in rural areas
  • Average incomes - 6000 rupees (£75)
  • 55% live below poverty line
  • 26 of India's poorest districts in Bihar

Little investment from companies because people can't afford basic services

  • 58.8% had electricity and 12% water flushed toilets
  • 80% used wood and 35% cow dung which causes lung disease
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Farming in the rural periphery

Farming in the rural periphery

  • Most farmers rent small plots
  • 'Sharecropping' system - pay half of produce to the landlord
  • Most only afford subsistence 
  • With no surplus crops farmers can't invest in new maxhinery or fertiliser
  • Trapped in cycle of poverty
  • Bihar - 54.2% households are landless
  • Many borrow money with high interest rates
  • Malnutrition is common 
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Women and poverty

Women and poverty 

  • Bihar fertility rate is 4.4 and Maharashtra is 2.1
  • Need more children to work on land ancd collect wood or water
  • Women uneducated - have poorest literacy rates so get married young 
  • 35% go to primary school, 8% go to upper primary and 2% reach Year 12 and 13
  • Caste-based society - people in higher castes are literate and thoser in lowest have zero literacy
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Top-down project - the Narmada River scheme

  • Rainfall is seasonal and unreliable
  • As population icreases, demand for water rises
  • Need super dams to:
    • encourage economic development by providing drinking water and electricity
    • open up dry lands for farming by irrigation
  • Large dams make it possible to store monsoon rains during the dry season
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The Sardar Sarovar Dam


  • Mulipurpose - provides 3.5 billions of water a day and 1450MW of HEP
  • Series of canals distribute water to other states. 
  • They will irrigate 1.8 million hectares of farmland in driest parts 


  • 234 villages drowned so far, forcing 320,000 out
  • Historic sites lost
  • Few villages can afford electricity 
  • Irrigation increases soil salinity making it less useable
  • Silt will reduce reservoir's capacity
  • Fertile sediment lost 
  • Trigger earthquake activity
  • Good quality farmland submerged
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Fuelwood crisis

  • Each family needs 25-30kg of firewood per week
  • Becoming more scarse due to increase in population
  • Have to walk further to find it 
  • Cow dung being used as a fuel 
  • Has health risks such as lung and eye problems and is better fertiliser

Lack of education

  • Responsible for home and domestic chores
  • Little education so hogh fetility rate


  • Cow dung - Biogas
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For people

  • Smoke and ash free so reduces health problems
  • Women and children dreeee from gathering wood
  • 80% use time to earn extra uncome
  • Cow dung is no longer stored in home 
  • Sanitation and health is improved
  • 200,000 jobs created 

For the environment

  • Slurry created is better fertiliser
  • 277 tonnes of CO2 emission savings
  • Produce electricity used for pumping domestic and irrigation water
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Rules for sustainable development

  • Involve local people in decision making
  • Be affordable
  • Promote good health 
  • Protect and encourage native plants and animals
  • Use land thats been developed before
  • Minimise waste and encourage re-use and recycling
  • Minimise energy use
  • Minimise water use and use rainwater for irrigation
  • Minimise pollution
  • Offer benefits to the poor as well as the wealthy 
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