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Hurricain Ivan

  • One of the Caribbeans worst hurricanes.
  • Hit Grenada on 7th September
  • Cat 4
  • Coastal defences gd vs storm surges
  • 37 dead (Grenada), 90% of houses damaged/destroyed
  • 1/2 people Grenada homeless.
  • Water, power, telecommunications down
  • Water running again within 3 weeks

Short Term:

  • People lacked food, clean water, med care

Long Term

  • Agriculture, tourism and infrastructure badly hit
  • Took long time to build+replace
  • Most people no insurance, so harder to recover
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Economic Factors_2

  • Ghana = lots of bauxite ore
  • No facilities to process
  • Sell bauxite at $20 per tonne
  • Aluminum $1500 per tonne
  • Need facilities
  • Some countries grow crops such as sugar cane
  • But all countries around will grow the same crop
  • Price goes down = bad for growing country
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  • Good levels of education, water supplies and range of industries
  • Agriculture + mining
  • Farming by white farmer (former colonist ancestors)
  • Agriculture commercial and extremely profitable
  • Corruption = White farmers driven off land and given to inexperienced people = Failed crops
  • Mining = officials take the money and diamonds for themselves
  • Infrastructure collapsed = water stopped, Cholera out break
  • Food prices rocketed
  • Inflation huge
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Cahora Bassa Dam - Large Scale Aid

  • Begun - 1960's Portuguese government, 3 decades to complete
  • Due to civil war
  • Largest HEP project in southern Africa
  • River Zambezi Basin, 1 of 3 dams
  • Only 1% of rural Mozambique electricity - dam not changed that
  • Most power sold to South Africa
  • Much larger potential
  • River flow low, shrimp farming destroyed
  • Mepuna Uncua planed '05

Cahora Bassa Success?

  • Much larger potential than realised
  • If in harmony with other dams, could power Mozambique + surrounding countries
  • River flooding controlled
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Medium + Small Scale Aid Projects

Medium - Action Aid

  • UK charity, destroy poverty goal
  • Targets: HIV/Aids, hunger+food, women's rights, right for education, right to security, right to good government
  • Works in poorest Kolkata, through sponsorship
  • Monthly donors sponsor child or community
  • low level tech used but benefits community

Small - Community Youth Empowerment Programme, Uganda

  • Student Partnership Worldwide - UK based, sends gap students to develop projects
  • Targets: Raise awareness of HIV/Aids, Improve knowledge of environmental heath concerns, Teach energy conservation methods (Tree nursery), Promote sustainable organic farming ideas
  • Projects Include: Kebager Village, 3 natural springs polluted, constructed a covered water tank
  • Bwanyanga village, schools received SPW student teachers for workshops and lessons
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Bulgaria + Ireland


  • Bulgaria pop of 7.5 million '08 is 300,00 less than in '98. Due to oppurtiunites abroad
  • Previous USSR, since breakup, SOL -40%, second poorest EU country


  • Pop of 4.5 million '08 slightly increasing due to migrant labour.
  • Until joint EU '73, poor country
  • Membership - Agriculture based to high tech service
  • 10% per annum economic grow from '95 to '00, called 'Celtic Tiger'
  • Very much part of economic core
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