What is Development?
Development is the process of change which improves the well being of a society, in term of material wealth and the quality of life.
The different types of development?
- Economic development improves increased employment, income and usually industrial growth
- Social development means having cleaner water, better stnaders of living, better education, better health and better housing
- Enviromental development involves improving or restoring natural enviroments
- Political development involves developing stable and representative governments
Economic development indicators
- Gross National Income ( GNI ) - the total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year plus income from people living abroad
- GNI per capita - a country's GNI divided by its population
- Gross Domestic Income ( GDI ) - the total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year
- Unemployment - measured by the number of people who cannot find work
Human development indicators
- Life expectancy - the average age to whick a person lives
- Infant mortality rate - the number of babies per 1000 live births who die under the age of one
- People per doctor - the number of doctors per 10 000 people
- Risk of disease - the percentage of people with dangerous diseases such as AIDs, malaria and TB
- Human Development Index ( HDI ) - a mix of indices that shoe life expectancy, adult literacy, education and GNP per capita
Newly industrialisted countries ( NIC )
Countries that have recently seen massive growth in their manufacturing industries. These countries include South Korea and Taiwan, have been described as 'tiger economies' although they have seen less success in very recent years
Recently industrialised countries ( RICs )
A term used for the very recent growth of india and china
Millennium development goals
- Goal 1 - Eradicate exreme poverty and hunger
- Goal 2 - Achieve universal primary education
- Goal 3 - Promote gender quality and empower women
- Goal 4 - Reduce child mortality
- Goal 5 - Improve maternal health
- Goal 6 - Combat HIV/AIDS, maleria and other diseases
- Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainablilty
- Goal 8 - Develop a global partnership for development
What is Aid?
Aid is the transfer of resources from richer countries to poorer ones.
Different types of Aid
- Bilaterial aid - is an arrangement between two countries. It is often tied aid, meaning the recieving country has to spend the money on goods and services for the donor country
- Multilateral aid - is money donated by richer countries via organisations such as the international monetary fund, the united nation and the world bank
- Emergancy aid - provides immediate relif during or after a disaster such as famine or a tsunami. It includes food, medicines and tents
- Long term aid - such as educating young people, it is a sustained programme which aims to improve the standerds of living
- Debt abolition - is when richer countries cancel debt owned to them by poorer countries
- Non - governmental aid - is given through charities such as oxfam and save the children , it provides emergancy relif or support small scale development
The Multiplier effect
The multiplier effect describes how an increase in economic activity starts a chain reaction that generates more activity than the original increase.
The setting up of a factory will give employees an income, this will lead to increased spending on consumer goods and new industries will develop to meet this demand. There will be a need to transport good, so lorry drivers will need to be trained and schools will be set up to teach drivers and so on ..
Large scale development
LEDCs use large scale development to kick start their economiies and the development process.
- the building of a dam tp provide power and water e.g. Narmada river project india
- the construction of roads such as the trans- amazonian highway
large scale development projects rely heavily on foreign investment and aid
money often needs to be borrowed by MEDCs which places the county in debt
Small scale local development
Small scale development projects rely on making small changes, working with local people and using local skills. This is described as bottom up development.
Small scale projects aim to meet peoples everyday needs, such as clean water and sanitaion
This development does not rely on heavy investment, as it is offten supported by non - govermental organisations such as oxfam and water aid