Development of the Symphony Essay - Tempo/Rhythm

Haydn Symphony No. 104 in D (London) - 1795

- syncopation often used with fz to emphasise (e.g. mvt 1 codetta and at start of minuet)

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Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C min - 1804-1808

- mvt 3 is scherzo and trio with its 1 in a bar tempo but totally different with its dark nature and continual rits, pauses and disruptions

- mvt 4 cyclical elements with imaginative change in tempo created by scherzo horn melody interjecting at the end of the development 

- an accel., cut common time and presto tempo are all used in the developing coda

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Beethoven Symphony No. 9 in D min (Chorale) - 1823

- mvt 4 frequent tempo and time changes as he quotes from previous 3 mvts to create a cyclical element

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Mendelssohn Italian Symphony - 1832

- syncopation and cross rhythms create energy and drive 

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Berlioz Symphony Fantastique in C - 1829

- very expressive use of tempo changes throughout to fit programmatic elements (e.g. anime, retenu, atempo) ebbs and flows the original idee fixe

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Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 4 - 1897

- many Russian folk influences and cyclical elements (e.g. use of 'fate' motif from mvt 1 being recalled into mvt 4) create tempo/metre variety as slower and in 3/4 time

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