Development of the Symphony Essay - Influences/Mood

Haydn Symphony N. 45 in F# min (The Farewell) - 17

- mvt 1 influenced by 'sturm and drang' characteristics with strident nature, minor key and unnerving syncopations

- influence of courts (e.g. Haydn changing key to signal to Prince that the musicians wanted to leave) 

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Haydn Symphony No. 104 in D (London) - 1795

- mvt 2 B section influenced by 'sturm and drang' with dotted rhythms, fz, suspension, minor tonality and syncopations 

- minuet influenced by eastern european folk 

- drone/folk dance harmonies of mvt 4 and rustic stamping idea in transition 

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Beethoven Symphony No. 6 (Pastorale) in F - 1808

- each mvt had a title relating to the countryside (e.g. mvt 2 'scene by the brook', mvt 4 'storm')

-significant programmatic elements in mvt 4 (e.g. trombones illistrate build to storm)

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Early Romantic Period Composers

- began to react to formalities and write in alternative genres influenced by literature 

- Romantic movement began in Germany in late 18th century as a literary movement captivated by medieval romance, adventure, nature and folklore which later spread throughout Europe

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Mendelssohn Italian Symphony - 1832

- mvt 2 religious procession fading into the distance 

- trio hunting fanfare

- finale dances tarantella/saltarello

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Berlioz Symphony Fantastique in C - 1829

- entitled 'Episode in the Life of an Artist'

- autobiographical as he wrote of his unhappy relationship with actress Harriet Smithson

- extended Beethoven's idea in Pastorale symphony of supplying detailed descriptive programmes for each mvt 

- use of idee fixe

- expanded 5 mvt form shows influence of programme and increasing influence of dance (e.g. slow mvt and waltz reversed so slow mvt becomes central and splits up two dance mvts)

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Dvorak Symphony No. 9 (From the New World) in E mi

- influenced by nationalistic ideas and melodies often showed dance rhythms of bohemian folk dances and folk music 

- after working in America, Native American music and Spirituals influenced his 'From the New World' symphony

- mvt 1 influenced by 'Swing Low' 

- mvt 2 influenced by Longfellow's 'Hiawatha' later became known as 'going home' from cor anglais theme

- mvt 3 portrays native Indian wedding feast with trio having style of Czech folk song 

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Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 2 and 4 - 1877/1878 and 1

- many influences of Russian folk music in No.4 mvt 4 to give greaat excitation and cyclical elements when 'fate' motif from mvt 1 is recalled

- in mvt 5 of No. 2 depicts orchestral reference to a Resurrection Ode by German Poet Klopstock and often included Austrian folk song, nature references, dance rhythms, marches etc.

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Smetana Vltava (Tone Poem) -1874-1879

- tone poem no. 2 of 6 entitled 'Ma Vlast' (My Country) tells story of a Czech river from its source until it reaches the city of Prague

- 1 source of river

- 2 rivers theme with its regular 4 bars 

- 3 hunting scene

- 4 wedding feast - Czech polka dance

- 5 water nymphs 

- 6 rapids

- 7 majestic return of river melody - major, faster, louder

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Till Eulenspiegel (Tone Poem) - 1894-1895

- popular work based on old German stroy about a peasant folk-hero and prankster called 'Till Eulenspiegel' 

- written iin very free rondo structure totally governed by storyline

- 1 'Once upon a time there lived a rascal' melody

- 2 melody associated with 'Till'

- melodies tranformed by his adventures/experiences until he is arrested and sentenced to death (idee fixe, cyclical, motivitic transformation)

- 'Once upon a time' melody returns at end as 'he lives on in the tales of his adventures'

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