Development key theories


Piaget's theory of cognitive development

changes in thinking (cognition) over time - children think differently to adults

stages - different kinds of logical thinking occur in each stage

schemas - mental structures containing knowledge. schemas become more complex through assimilation & accomodation

ASSIMILATION - adding new info to an existing schema

ACCOMMODATION - forming a new schema on receiving info that changes our understanding of smth

EVAL: real world application - theory has been used to change classroom teaching (more activity based). many studies have happened to test the theory - improves our understanding of how children's thinking develops

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Piaget's theory - stages

Sensorimotor - 0-2 years - learn to coordinate sensory + motor info - object permanence develops

Pre-operational - 2-7 years - can't think in a way that makes sense - egocentric, can't conserve

Concrete operational - 7-11 years - at 7 most can conserve and show less egocentrism - logical thinking applied to physical objects only

Formal operational - 11+ years - can draw conclusions about abstract concepts & form arguments

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Dweck's mindset theory

mindset affects success - success is due to effort not talent

GROWTH mindset - can improve with effort, enjoy challenge, focused on learning goals - failure is an opportunity to grow and learn from mistakes

FIXED mindset - effort wont help because talent is fixed in genes, focused on performance - failure indicates lack of talent = gives up

Mindset is a continuum (not fixed) - we change between each mindset depending on the situation

EVAL: research to support - Dweck found that children who were taught a growth mindset had better grades/motivation. both mindsets involve praise - praising effort still results in doing things for praise, so can discourage independent behaviour

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Willingham's learning theory

educational ideas should be evidence based. cognitive psychology & neuroscience should be used to improve learning.

praising effort should be unexpected - research found that praise before task = less motivation in future. forgetting is a result of lack of cues & we should practise retrieving info from memory. self-regulation/self-control linked to high academic performance. neuroscience - brain waves in dyslexics are different - could benefit progress by getting help earlier

EVAL: based on scientific evidence - greater validity. real world application - positive impact on education as an alternative to learning styles. dyslexia cannot be diagnosed by brain waves as it isnt linked to just 1 thing

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