Gross Domestic Product(GDP)- total value of goods and services a country produces a year.
Gross National Income(GNI)- total value of goods and services people of that nationality produce.
GNI per Head- the GNI divided by the population of a country.
Birth Rate- the number of live babies born per thousand of population per year.
Death Rate- the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
Infant mortality Rate- number of babies who die under 1 year old per thousand babies born.
People per Doctor- the average number of people for each doctor.
Literacy Rate- The percentage of adults who can read and write.
Access to Safe Water- the percentage of people who can get clean drinking water.
Life Expectancy- the average age a person can expect to live to.
- The meaures can be misleading because it uses averages, and doesn't show variations.
- Some aspects develop before others, making it seem a country is more developed.
Using HDI avoids these problems.
Human Development Index- a number calculated using life expectancy, literacy rate, education level and income per head.
Standard of Living- their material wealth, economic factors.
Quality of Life- includes standard of living but also takes into account social factors- location.
Around the world their are different perceptions of a good quality of life.
Global Inequalities- level of development of different countries in the world is unequal.
- Richer MEDCs were generally found in the North- USA, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.
- Poorer LEDCs were generally found in the South- India, China, Mexico, Brazil.
- Couldn't tell which countries were developing quickly.
- Rich Industralising Countries- most developed countries in the world- UK, USA, Canada,France
- Oil Exporting Countries- Quite high GNI, but wealth belongs to few people- Qatar, Kuwait,Saudi
- Newly Industralising Countries- Rapidly richer due to industrialising economy- China, Brazil
- Former Communist Countries- Not Poor but not rich either- Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Poland.
- Heavily Indebted poor Countries- poorest, least devloped countries in the world- Ethiopia, Chad
Environmental Causes of Global Inequalities
- Poor Climate means inability to grow crops and less food produced.
- Malnutrition leads to low quality of life.
- Fewer crops to sell, less money to spend on goods and services, meaning a lower quality of life
- Less money from taxes, less to spend on developing the country.
Poor Farming Land: Poor soil means no food produced.
Limited Water Supplies: Harder to produce a lot of food.
- Have to spend money rebuilding after natural disasters occur, meaning lower to spend.
- Reduce quality of Life for people affected.
Few Raw Materials:
- Fewer products to sell, meaning less money to spend on development.
Economic Causes of Global Inequalities
Poor Trade Links:
- Poor trade links mean slow economic growth meaning less money to spend on development.
- Very poor countries borrow money from international organisations and other countries.
- Money has to be paid back with interest.
- Less money to spend on development.
- Exporting primary products(raw materials) means less development.
- Not much profit made by selling primary products.
- Less to spend on development.
Social Causes of Global Inequalities
- More clean drinking water = more developed country.
- Waterbourne diseases = lower quality of life.
- Ill people can't work and contribute to the economy, slowing growth.
- Money to spend on healthcare and not development.
Women in Society:
- Development if women has equal place with men in society.
- More likely to be educated and working, contributing to the economy.
- Better quality of life for women.
- More to spend on development.
- More children going to school more development.
- Better education for better jobs to contribute to the economy.
- Increases Quality of Life.
Political Causes of Global Inequalities
- May not invest in healthcare, education or improving the economy.
- Politicians get richer while others stay poor and have a low quality of life.
- Money is spent on ammunitions and equipment.
- Buildings get destroyed.
- Fewer people working.
- Reduces Quality of Life.
Hurricane Mitch (1998) - CASE STUDY
Short-Term Effects in Nicaragua:
- Around 3000 deaths, 50,000 animals died.
- 70% roads unusable/ 71 bridges destroyed/ 23,900 houses destroyed/340 schools destroyed.
Short-Term Effects in Honduras:
- Around 7000 deaths. 70% crops destroyed.
- 70-80% transport infrastructure severely damaged/ 85,000 homes destroyed/damaged.
- 20% Schools damaged/ 117 Health centres/ 6 hospitals
Long Term Effects in Nicaragua:
- Rate of growth slowed down/ Exports went down/ total damage costs $1.2bn/ 8.2% increase of working children.
Long Term Effects in Honduras:
- Rate of growth slowed down/ Total damages costs $439mil/ destroyed 50 years of progress.
Reducing Global Inequality
- Getting a Fair Price for goods produced in poorer countries.
- Companies pay farmers a fair price.
- Consumers pay extra to help develop area of goods origin.
- Good Working Conditions are also provided.
- Countries making free trade agreements, between MEDCs and LEDCs
- Boost exports and goods, growing the economy of the LEDC.
Debt Abolition: Zambia healthcare
- When some/all of a country's debt is cancelled, so they can use the money for development.
Conservation Swaps: USA-Peru Rainforests
- Part of a country's debt is paid off by another country in exchange for conservation investment.
Government Aid- aid given by the donor with taxpayers money.
Non-Governmental Organisation- aid given by the donor with voluntary donations.
Bilateral Aid- donor governments gives aid directly to the recipient.
Multilateral Aid- donor governments gives aid indirectly through an internaltional organisation.
- Money that help recipient countries cope with emergencies.
- The aid has an immediate impact- more people will survive the emergency.
- Recipient Country may become reliant on aid.
- Money that help recipient countries to develop- building dams and wells, and building schools.
- Recipient countries can become less reliant on foriegn aid while they develop.
Reducing Global Inequality
Long- Term Aid:
- Building schools to improve literacy rates and hospitals to reduce mortality rates.
- Building dams and wells to improve clean water supplies.
- Providing farming equipment to improve agriculture.
- Donors invest in renewable energy to reduce fossil fuel use.
- Reduces environmental impact of using fossil fuels.
- Eduacting people about their environmental impact reduces air and water pollution.
- Planting trees in areas that have been affected by deforestation.
Farm-Africa - CASE STUDY
FARM-Africa is a non-governmental organisation providing aid to Eastern Africa. It is funded by voluntary donations since 1985. Runs programme in- Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya,Uganda, Tanzania
Rural Women's Empowerment:
- Helps women gain an equal place in society. Helps 15,000 women.
- Women are given training and livestock to start farming.
- Loan Schemes to help set up small businesses like bakeries and coffee shops.
Community Development Project:
- Helps farmers in Semu Robi recover from droughts. Helps 4100 people.
- People are given loans to buy small water pumps to irrigate their land.
Sustainable Forest Management:
- Deforestation occurs for farming and firewood. Helps 7500 communities.
- Communities are taught how to produce honey and grow wild coffee, which are sold.
- Communities are also taught how to make fuel-efficient stoves using less wood.
EU Reducing Inequalities
URBAN Community Initiative:
- Money is given to certain EU cities to create jobs, reduce crime and increase green space.
Common Agricultural Policy:
- Farmers are subsidised to grow certain products.
- The EU buys produce when world food prices are low.
- Puts a high import tax on foriegn produce so people buy EU produce.
- Provide money for research and development.
- Improves employment opportunities, reducing discrimination, improving transport links.
- The aim is to get all members of the EU to similar level of devlopment.
EU Inequalities - CASE STUDY
UK > Bulgaria:
- Bulgaria GNI per head = $11,180/ UK GNI per head = $33, 800
- Bulgaria Life Expectancy = 73/ UK Life Expectancy = 79
- Bulgaria HDI = 0.824/ UK HDI = 0.947
- The climate is temperate, creating good conditions for farming.
- Well developed manufacturing and service industries, with good worldwide trade links.
- Droughts in summer and high snowfall in winter, making it difficult farming conditions.
- Communist country between 1944-1990 = no money spent on development.
- Political Corruption problems since 1990.
Special Accession Programme for Agriculture / Rural Development (SAPARD) gives money to Bulgaria to invest in agriculture.Funds partially frozen until government fights corruption