Development Gap

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  • Created by: zuljupri
  • Created on: 15-04-17 22:40

Measuring Development

Gross Domestic Product(GDP)- total value of goods and services a country produces a year.

Gross National Income(GNI)- total value of goods and services people of that nationality produce.

GNI per Head- the GNI divided by the population of a country.

Birth Rate- the number of live babies born per thousand of population per year.

Death Rate- the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.

Infant mortality Rate- number of babies who die under 1 year old per thousand babies born.

People per Doctor- the average number of people for each doctor.

Literacy Rate- The percentage of adults who can read and write.

Access to Safe Water- the percentage of people who can get clean drinking water.

Life Expectancy- the average age a person can expect to live to.

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Measuring Development

Limitations:

  • The meaures can be misleading because it uses averages, and doesn't show variations.
  • Some aspects develop before others, making it seem a country is more developed.

Using HDI avoids these problems.

Human Development Index- a number calculated using life expectancy, literacy rate, education level and income per head.

Standard of Living- their material wealth, economic factors.

Quality of Life- includes standard of living but also takes into account social factors- location.

Around the world their are different perceptions of a good quality of life.

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Global Inequalities

Global Inequalities- level of development of different countries in the world is unequal.

North-South Divide:

  • Richer MEDCs were generally found in the North- USA, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.
  • Poorer LEDCs were generally found in the South- India, China, Mexico, Brazil.
  • Couldn't tell which countries were developing quickly.

Five-Fold Division:

  • Rich Industralising Countries- most developed countries in the world- UK, USA, Canada,France
  • Oil Exporting Countries- Quite high GNI, but wealth belongs to few people- Qatar, Kuwait,Saudi
  • Newly Industralising Countries- Rapidly richer due to industrialising economy- China, Brazil
  • Former Communist Countries- Not Poor but not rich either- Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Poland.
  • Heavily Indebted poor Countries- poorest, least devloped countries in the world- Ethiopia, Chad
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Environmental Causes of Global Inequalities

Poor Climate:

  • Poor Climate means inability to grow crops and less food produced.
  • Malnutrition leads to low quality of life.
  • Fewer crops to sell, less money to spend on goods and services, meaning a lower quality of life
  • Less money from taxes, less to spend on developing the country.

Poor Farming Land: Poor soil means no food produced.

Limited Water Supplies: Harder to produce a lot of food.

Natural Hazards:

  • Have to spend money rebuilding after natural disasters occur, meaning lower to spend.
  • Reduce quality of Life for people affected.

Few Raw Materials:

  • Fewer products to sell, meaning less money to spend on development.
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Economic Causes of Global Inequalities

Poor Trade Links:

  • Poor trade links mean slow economic growth meaning less money to spend on development.

Debt:

  • Very poor countries borrow money from international organisations and other countries.
  • Money has to be paid back with interest.
  • Less money to spend on development.

Primary Economy:

  • Exporting primary products(raw materials) means less development.
  • Not much profit made by selling primary products.
  • Less to spend on development.
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Social Causes of Global Inequalities

Drinking Water:

  • More clean drinking water = more developed country.
  • Waterbourne diseases = lower quality of life.
  • Ill people can't work and contribute to the economy, slowing growth.
  • Money to spend on healthcare and not development.

Women in Society:

  • Development if women has equal place with men in society.
  • More likely to be educated and working, contributing to the economy.
  • Better quality of life for women.
  • More to spend on development.

Children Education:

  • More children going to school more development.
  • Better education for better jobs to contribute to the economy.
  • Increases Quality of Life.
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Political Causes of Global Inequalities

Unstable Government:

  • May not invest in healthcare, education or improving the economy.

Corrupt Governments:

  • Politicians get richer while others stay poor and have a low quality of life.

War:

  • Money is spent on ammunitions and equipment.
  • Buildings get destroyed.
  • Fewer people working.
  • Reduces Quality of Life.
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Hurricane Mitch (1998) - CASE STUDY

Short-Term Effects in Nicaragua:

  • Around 3000 deaths, 50,000 animals died.
  • 70% roads unusable/ 71 bridges destroyed/ 23,900 houses destroyed/340 schools destroyed.

Short-Term Effects in Honduras:

  • Around 7000 deaths. 70% crops destroyed.
  • 70-80% transport infrastructure severely damaged/ 85,000 homes destroyed/damaged.
  • 20% Schools damaged/ 117 Health centres/ 6 hospitals

Long Term Effects in Nicaragua:

  • Rate of growth slowed down/ Exports went down/ total damage costs $1.2bn/ 8.2% increase of working children.

Long Term Effects in Honduras:

  • Rate of growth slowed down/ Total damages costs $439mil/ destroyed 50 years of progress.
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Reducing Global Inequality

FairTrade:

  • Getting a Fair Price for goods produced in poorer countries.
  • Companies pay farmers a fair price.
  • Consumers pay extra to help develop area of goods origin.
  • Good Working Conditions are also provided.

Trading Groups:

  • Countries making free trade agreements, between MEDCs and LEDCs
  • Boost exports and goods, growing the economy of the LEDC.

Debt Abolition: Zambia healthcare

  • When some/all of a country's debt is cancelled, so they can use the money for development.

Conservation Swaps: USA-Peru Rainforests

  • Part of a country's debt is paid off by another country in exchange for conservation investment.
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International Aid

Government Aid- aid given by the donor with taxpayers money.

Non-Governmental Organisation- aid given by the donor with voluntary donations.

Bilateral Aid- donor governments gives aid directly to the recipient.

Multilateral Aid- donor governments gives aid indirectly through an internaltional organisation.

Short-Term Aid:

  • Money that help recipient countries cope with emergencies.
  • The aid has an immediate impact- more people will survive the emergency.
  • Recipient Country may become reliant on aid.

Long-Term Aid:

  • Money that help recipient countries to develop- building dams and wells, and building schools.
  • Recipient countries can become less reliant on foriegn aid while they develop.
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Reducing Global Inequality

Long- Term Aid:

  • Building schools to improve literacy rates and hospitals to reduce mortality rates.
  • Building dams and wells to improve clean water supplies.
  • Providing farming equipment to improve agriculture.

Renewable Energy:

  • Donors invest in renewable energy to reduce fossil fuel use.
  • Reduces environmental impact of using fossil fuels.

Education:

  • Eduacting people about their environmental impact reduces air and water pollution.

Reforestation:

  • Planting trees in areas that have been affected by deforestation.
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Farm-Africa - CASE STUDY

FARM-Africa is a non-governmental organisation providing aid to Eastern Africa. It is funded by voluntary donations since 1985. Runs programme in- Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya,Uganda, Tanzania

Rural Women's Empowerment:

  • Helps women gain an equal place in society. Helps 15,000 women.
  • Women are given training and livestock to start farming.
  • Loan Schemes to help set up small businesses like bakeries and coffee shops.

Community Development Project:

  • Helps farmers in Semu Robi recover from droughts. Helps 4100 people.
  • People are given loans to buy small water pumps to irrigate their land.

Sustainable Forest Management:

  • Deforestation occurs for farming and firewood. Helps 7500 communities.
  • Communities are taught how to produce honey and grow wild coffee, which are sold.
  • Communities are also taught how to make fuel-efficient stoves using less wood.  
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EU Reducing Inequalities

URBAN Community Initiative:

  • Money is given to certain EU cities to create jobs, reduce crime and increase green space.

Common Agricultural Policy:

  • Farmers are subsidised to grow certain products.
  • The EU buys produce when world food prices are low.
  • Puts a high import tax on foriegn produce so people buy EU produce.

Structural Funds:

  • Provide money for research and development.
  • Improves employment opportunities, reducing discrimination, improving transport links.
  • The aim is to get all members of the EU to similar level of devlopment.
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EU Inequalities - CASE STUDY

UK > Bulgaria:

  • Bulgaria GNI per head = $11,180/ UK GNI per head = $33, 800
  • Bulgaria Life Expectancy = 73/ UK Life Expectancy = 79
  • Bulgaria HDI = 0.824/ UK HDI = 0.947

UK:

  • The climate is temperate, creating good conditions for farming.
  • Well developed manufacturing and service industries, with good worldwide trade links.

Bulgaria:

  • Droughts in summer and high snowfall in winter, making it difficult farming conditions.
  • Communist country between 1944-1990 = no money spent on development.
  • Political Corruption problems since 1990.

Special Accession Programme for Agriculture / Rural Development (SAPARD) gives money to Bulgaria to invest in agriculture.Funds partially frozen until government fights corruption

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