Types of Development
Economic Development - Increase in secondary and tertiary employment leading to rising inomes.
Social Development - Imporved quality of life, better healthcare and education. Includes high life expectancy and improved equality.
Political Development - Improving political freedom, leading to greater control over who governs you.
Reasons for the Global Development Gap.
The world is very unequal and the gap between the richest and poorest nations remains very large.
- The Conflict Trap- Civil war (rebellion) and coup d'etat (illegal to challenge the government), stop poor countries from developing.
- The Natural Resorces Trap- Resource-rich poorer countries can get a temporary increase in income, but can't use it to strengthen their ecnomies.
- Land locked with bad neighbours- Usually means poor access to transport and potential markets abd situated in an unstable region.
- Bad Governance in a small country- Poor polices, corruption and poor leadership.
- Topography and Climate- If a country is dominated by a mountainous landscape it will be difficult to build communication and transport infrastructure to enable trade. Desert climates also make trade difficult and reduce land available for farming/industry/population.
Barriers to Progress in Uganda
Many Sub-Saharan African countries have made slow and unsteady development progress
The economy has grown well since 2002. This is possibly due to the IMF reforms which helped them to pay back their debt. They have then invested in education and health.
HDI rose from 0.31 in 1980 to 0.46 in 2012. Life expectancy rose from 50 to 55, (only a small amonut becuase of the effect of HIV and AIDS). Over 90% of children are educated at primary level abut only 20% of these are still in education over age 11.
In the 1980's Uganda was under a brutal dictatorship. Since then it has become more democratic, with political party elections, although human rights are still an issue.
Barriers to Development -2
Landlocked- Uganda has no coast and has to rely on other countries, like Kenya, for import and export routes.
Aid's/HIV- 6.5% of adults in Uganda have HIV. This has fallen from 13% in 1990, it could rise again if it is not managed.
Youth- 55% of Ugandans are under 18. They are a huge potential workforce, but also a social problem if they can not get work.
Corruption- Too much foreign aid still goes 'missing' in Uganda and TNC investors have to pay bribes to get business done.
Conflict- East Africa is plagued by conflict in nearby Kenya, Sudan and the DRC, which culd spill over Uganda's borders.
Coffee Prices- The economy is too dependent on a few crop exports; if coffee prices fall sharply, so does the GDP.
Rostow's Modernisation Theory
Rostow believed that development needed cer condtions before it could happen. These include:
- A move from frming to manufactoring industry
- Trade with neighboring countries.
- The development of infrastructure
Criticisms of Rostow's Model
1. Outdated : As it was developed in the 1960's
2. Oversimplified : It was based on the development of 15 , mostly European, countries
3. Ignores Debt : Repayments of which can prevent reaching take off stage.
4. Ignores : That developed countries are often exploited by developing countries at their expense.
Frank's Dependency Theory
Frank believed that the word could be split into two sections;
- Developing nations
- export mostly raw materials of low value
- Depend on the core for their market,
- Developed nations
- Processes raw materials to make high value goods
His theory States;
- Histroical trade has made countries poor (colonialism)
- Devloping countries are weak members of the economy which depend on the devloped economies
Critcisms of Dependency Theory
- Ignores other factors that limit development such as conflict, natura disaster or lack of resources.
- Doesn't take into account NIC's (Newly industrialised countries)
- Static- it doesn't allow for countries to more between sections.
Regional Differences in Development - India
Indias wealth is not shared out evenly. It varies between states from the wealthiest ( Maraharastra) to the poorest (Bihar)
Where countries and ports have developed attracting investment and people work there in a multiplier effect. In Maharastra there has been mass in-migration and has an urban population of42.4%. Mumbai is situated in this region and therfore there are many governmental jobs and Bollywood are situated in this area. This increases economic growth and general wealth.
Economic growth suffers as people migrate away from the core. Rural areas are then stuck in a cycle of poverty. This is where all the raw materials used by core countries are bought from. In Bihar subsistence farming is the main employment and the government are corrupt and surpress development in certain areas.
The Core and Periphery and Interdependent, neither one can be sustained without the other.
Top Down Development Strategies
These tend to be large scale schemes that are set up by government. Local people who often live near the scheme do not get involved in the process. For Example : San Antnio Dam
Top Down Development Features
- Economic Development
- Large Scale (such as a whole area/city)
- Cost millions or billions of Pounds
- Funded by Foreign investment or TNC's
- National : organised by and controlled by the government in the capital city.
- Highly technical
- Large projects designed to improve lifestyles of many people
San Antonio Dam - Top Down Development Project
- 5km upstream from Porto Velho, the capital of Rondonia
- Is designed to produce 3,150MWof electricity and cost $5.3 billion to build.
- Is being constructed by Consorico Mederia Energitica. Which includes Brazilian , Spanish and Portugese banks.
- The final flooded area will be around 1000km
- High sediment loads may block turbines.
- Commercial fishing (worth $ 1 billion) are at risk from the dam becuase the fish will be disturbed and 2400 fishermen could loose jobs.
- An increase in malaria is likely becuase the increase in water area.
- 300 had to leave their homes and some towns have dissappeared.
- 20,000 jobs will be created and 100,000 will be attracted to the reagion
- Produce the cheapest electricity in Brazil
- Health,educaton,lesuire, safety and sanitation infrastructure will be imporved.
Bottom Up Development
Local people are fully involved in the descion making process. Overall payed by NGO's or charities. For example: A biogas digester.
- Very low cost, funded by NGO's or charities such as Oxfam
- Smaller projects that aim to imprve health education or food supply
- Simple- intermediate technology
- Social Development
- Small Scale: a village - small ruaral area or urban slum