- IV varied to see the effects on the DV.
- Lab Experiments- high on internal validity low on external validity.
- Field Experiments- more natural enviroment but had more issues of control than a Lad study.
- Natural Experiment- uses naturally occuring IVs but cannot conclude causality in these studies.
- Experimental designs- Idependant designs, Matched pairs, repeated measures.
- Observing through behavioural categories.
- Sampling methods- time and event sampling
- Open to subjective bias- observations affected by expectations.
- Concerned with relationship between 2 variables.
- Does not demonstrate causality
- Other variables may influence any measure relationship
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Research Methods (cont)
- Questionnaires and interveiws
- Structured interviews- more easily repeated.
- Unstructured interviews- questions that evolve are dependant on answers given.
- May involve open (respondent provides own answers) or closed (respondant chooses specific answer) questions.
- Main problem- social desirability bias.
- Detailed study of individual institution or event.
- Generally longitudinal, following individual or group over time.
- Allows study of complex interaction of many variables.
- Difficult to generalise from specific cases.
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- Experimental research- allows replication of study.
- Observations- inter-observer reliability can be improved through training.
- Self-report- internal reliability (split-half) and external reliability (test-retest)
- Internal validity- does study test what it was intended to test?
- External validity- can results be generalised to other situations and people?
- Lab experiments not necessarily low in external validity.
- If low in mundane realism, reduces generalisability of findings.
- In observations, internal validity affected by observer bias.
- Self-report techniques issues of face anc concurrent validity.
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Design Issues (cont)
- Opportunity- most easily available participants.
- Volunteer- e.g through advert, but subject to bias.
- Random- all members of target population must have equal chance of selection.
- Stratified and quota- different subgroups within sample, leads to more representative sample.
- Snowball- researcher directed to other similar potential participants
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Ethical Issues with humans
- Informed consent and deception.
- Harm- what constitutes too much?
Code of Conduct
- Respect for worth and dignity of participants.
- Right to privacy, confidentiality, informed consent and right ot withdraw.
- Intentional deception only acceptable in some circumstances.
- Competence- retaining high standards
- Protection from harm and debreifing
- Integrity- being honest and accurate in reporting.
- Use of ethical guidlines in conjuction with ethical committees.
- Socially sensitive research- potential social consequences for participants.
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Ethical issues with non-humans
- Reasons for animal use- offer opportunity for greater control and objectivity; cant use humans; physiological similarities.
- Moral issues- sentience (experience pain and emotions)
- Specieism- form of discrimination against non-human species.
- Animal rights- no animal research is acceptable (Regan 1984)
- Do animals have rights if they have no responsibilities?
- Animal research subject to strict legislation (Animals act; BPS guidlines)
- The 3 Rs- Reduction, Replacement, Refinement.
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