Demography - Births

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EFFECTS

  • The family - Women are more likey to work, Middle class families may still be able to afford childcare and work
  • Effects the dependency ratio
  • Public service and policies - if less children are being born things like schools ect will be less needed
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TOTAL FERTILITY rate

  • More women are remaining childless
  • Risen since 2001 to 1.84 
  • Women are having children later - average age = 29.6
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REASONS for the DECLINE in the BIRTH rate

  • Changes in the position of women - employment, birth control and abortion, divorce
  • Fewer trends in birth rates - Mother not from the UK acount for 22% of births (2005), births per year in 2041 = 700 - 720,000
  • Child centerdness - 'quality' not 'quantity', now socially constructed
  • Econmic liabilites? - becoming more materialistic, different laws (schooling, child labor)
  • Decline in IMR - 1990 15% of babies died within their first year, IMR starting to fall (20th)
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