The study of populations. It includes the study of births, deaths and migration which leads to a chancge in the size of the population.
Measured in 3 ways;
1 - Actual Numbers - the actual number of live births in a population over a given time period
2 - Birth Rate - the number of live births per thousand of the population per year
3 - Toatal Fertility Rate - the average number of children a woman would have during her lifetime.
Births - The Reasons
1. Changes in the position of women - they now have the right to vote, easier divorce, changing attitudes and increased job oppourtunities
Post Modernists - In todays society women have more choice
Functionalists - Women are not satiung to their natural jobs
Feminists - Women are no longer opressed in a patriarchal
2. Economic factors
The cost of raising a child has risen - could be due to the school leaving age rising.
Children continue education - therefore they are dependent for longer.
It is estimated that the cost of raising a child and putting a child through university is £180,000.
Beck: we are living in an era of individualisation which means; people are increasingly realeased from the belief systems and norms of wider society. They are free to live a life of their own. Children conflict with this - they place limits on freedom - they demand time , energy and emotional investment. 4. Risk
Beck argues that society today is characterised by risk - relationships are seen as a source of risk - children add to this risk by putting strain on the relationship.
The effects of the changes in births..
Smaller familys mean that women can go out to work therefore creating dual earner couples. Supported by Young and Willmott.
However (A02) - 'better off' couples may be able to have more children as they can afford childcare.
Public Services & Policies
Fewer schools and childcare services needed
It has implications on housing types
However (A02) - instead of reducing numbers in schools, it is possible to reduce class sizes.
Deaths / Morality
Morality means death and is measured in 2 main ways;
Death Rate - this is the number of deaths per thousand per year.
This has fallen -
1900 - 18.4
2005 - 9.5
Infant Mortality Rate - this is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per thousand births
1901 - 25%
2001 - 1%
Reasons for changes in deaths..
1. Advances in medicine:
About 60% of the decline in morality was due to a decrease in infectious diseases. There has been an increae in vaccines and medication.