Demography

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  • Created by: J.E.C.
  • Created on: 14-05-14 10:09

Demographics and definitions

Statistical study of the poulation involving its size, growth, age and sex distribution.

Collected by...

> Census data

> Registration of births, deaths, marriages etc

> Nationwide surveys

Birth rate = number of live births per 1000 of population over a year

Fertility rate = number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 over a year.

Death rate = number of deaths per 1,000 of the population over a year.

Net Migration = Difference btween the numbers emigrating and those immigrating

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Reasons why birth rate is lower now than in 1901

> Decline in IM rate

> Improved sanitation, water and nutrition > Mass vaccination introduced after WWII

> Better standard of living - can afford fewer children

> Improved attitudes towards women

> Reliable birth control

Changes in fertility

> Changing attitudes towards family size - dual earners / not wanting any children

> Later marriage - have fewer / no children

> Increasingly involved in work and education

> Birth control and abortion laws

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Statistics and reasons

Average life expectancy = M: 65 & F: 69.5 / In the UK M: 77.2 and F:81.6 / In Swaziland av: 31.88. IM rates - Angola = 180.21 / UK = 4.6

Factors affecting life expectancy...

> Access to healthcare > Economy > Education > War / political unrest > Migration

Sanitation levels > Vulnerability to natural disasters

Why women live longer...

> Immune system ages more slowly > Men have more dangerous jobs > W have healthier lifestyles

Why we are living longer...

> Better medical care (immunisations, antibiotics, midwifery) / education / nutrition / resistance to infection / public health / environment /

> Less dangerous manual jobs > Higher income

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Ageing UK population - causes

Causes...

> Public health - better awareness of how to protect ourselves from disease / campaigns etc

> Improved medical care - immunisations, antibiotics, midwifery

> Scientific R&D - improved understanding of diseases - risk factors and treatments

> Decline in dangerous manual jobs - Increased H&S legislation / automation

> Better educated - how to lead a healthy lifestyle

> Improved nutrition - understanding of different food groups etc - balanced diet

> Higher income

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Ageing UK population - consequences

> Young people competing with older people for jobs - retiring later = less openings

> Strain on economy - provide pensions for longer / fund care homes / may have to increase taxes

> Strain on NHS - increased number suffering deteriorating health / accidents

> Strain on welfare state - providing support / benefits when elderly cannot work

> More beanpole families - many generations, few siblings

> Higher retirement age - to fund economy and pensions

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Ethinic breakdown & A-C adults

White = 87.9% / Other white = 7.6% / Black = 2.8% / Chinese and other = 1.6%

African-Caribbean adults...

> More likely to intermarry > Have mixed race children > Higher proportion of one-parent families

> 48% still single at 25 yrs old > 60% unattached at 30 > Young A-C women - 'modern individualism':

  > More likely to be employed than A-C men - prefer financial independance

 > A-C mother more likely to be supported by extended kinship networks

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Pakistani and Bangladeshi

> Most likely to live in old fashioned nuclear families

> Roughly 33% live in extended families

> Sikh extended families organised around brothers - their wives and children

> South Asians - more traditional family values than Whites

> Low divorce rates

> Arranged marriage

> Little intermarriage

> Tend to have more children at a younger age

> Children respect their cultural / religious upbriging

> Sense of duty to assist extended kin - economically / socially

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Class and sexual diversity, postmodernity

Class Diversity

> MC prents are more child-centred > MC parents take a greater interest in their children's education > WC just as child-centred but suffer material deprivation > WC children have a less satisfactory experience due to poor schools / lack or materials/support

> Extended kin ties most important to UC - mainatain wealth / privelage

> Use marriage / family connections to ensure social closure

Sexual diversity

NR suggest there is an increase in same sex couples and that it is unnatural - bt gives more equality between partners.

Postmodernity - diversity variation, instability - childlessness is acceptable - men redefine their role.

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