- Created by: J.E.C.
- Created on: 14-05-14 10:09
Demographics and definitions
Statistical study of the poulation involving its size, growth, age and sex distribution.
> Census data
> Registration of births, deaths, marriages etc
> Nationwide surveys
Birth rate = number of live births per 1000 of population over a year
Fertility rate = number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 over a year.
Death rate = number of deaths per 1,000 of the population over a year.
Net Migration = Difference btween the numbers emigrating and those immigrating
Reasons why birth rate is lower now than in 1901
> Decline in IM rate
> Improved sanitation, water and nutrition > Mass vaccination introduced after WWII
> Better standard of living - can afford fewer children
> Improved attitudes towards women
> Reliable birth control
Changes in fertility
> Changing attitudes towards family size - dual earners / not wanting any children
> Later marriage - have fewer / no children
> Increasingly involved in work and education
> Birth control and abortion laws
Statistics and reasons
Average life expectancy = M: 65 & F: 69.5 / In the UK M: 77.2 and F:81.6 / In Swaziland av: 31.88. IM rates - Angola = 180.21 / UK = 4.6
Factors affecting life expectancy...
> Access to healthcare > Economy > Education > War / political unrest > Migration
Sanitation levels > Vulnerability to natural disasters
Why women live longer...
> Immune system ages more slowly > Men have more dangerous jobs > W have healthier lifestyles
Why we are living longer...
> Better medical care (immunisations, antibiotics, midwifery) / education / nutrition / resistance to infection / public health / environment /
> Less dangerous manual jobs > Higher income
Ageing UK population - causes
> Public health - better awareness of how to protect ourselves from disease / campaigns etc
> Improved medical care - immunisations, antibiotics, midwifery
> Scientific R&D - improved understanding of diseases - risk factors and treatments
> Decline in dangerous manual jobs - Increased H&S legislation / automation
> Better educated - how to lead a healthy lifestyle
> Improved nutrition - understanding of different food groups etc - balanced diet
> Higher income
Ageing UK population - consequences
> Young people competing with older people for jobs - retiring later = less openings
> Strain on economy - provide pensions for longer / fund care homes / may have to increase taxes
> Strain on NHS - increased number suffering deteriorating health / accidents
> Strain on welfare state - providing support / benefits when elderly cannot work
> More beanpole families - many generations, few siblings
> Higher retirement age - to fund economy and pensions
Ethinic breakdown & A-C adults
White = 87.9% / Other white = 7.6% / Black = 2.8% / Chinese and other = 1.6%
> More likely to intermarry > Have mixed race children > Higher proportion of one-parent families
> 48% still single at 25 yrs old > 60% unattached at 30 > Young A-C women - 'modern individualism':
> More likely to be employed than A-C men - prefer financial independance
> A-C mother more likely to be supported by extended kinship networks
Pakistani and Bangladeshi
> Most likely to live in old fashioned nuclear families
> Roughly 33% live in extended families
> Sikh extended families organised around brothers - their wives and children
> South Asians - more traditional family values than Whites
> Low divorce rates
> Arranged marriage
> Little intermarriage
> Tend to have more children at a younger age
> Children respect their cultural / religious upbriging
> Sense of duty to assist extended kin - economically / socially
Class and sexual diversity, postmodernity
> MC prents are more child-centred > MC parents take a greater interest in their children's education > WC just as child-centred but suffer material deprivation > WC children have a less satisfactory experience due to poor schools / lack or materials/support
> Extended kin ties most important to UC - mainatain wealth / privelage
> Use marriage / family connections to ensure social closure
NR suggest there is an increase in same sex couples and that it is unnatural - bt gives more equality between partners.
Postmodernity - diversity variation, instability - childlessness is acceptable - men redefine their role.