- Created by: Charlottefwilliams
- Created on: 18-10-18 08:56
- the number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
- UK death rate in 2012: 8.9
Resons for decline in death rate- TRANTER
Decline in 1850-1970
- decline due to the fall in number of deaths from infectious diseases(diptheria, measles, smallpox,typhoid, TB)
- Most common among young, so..
- Most of decline came from children not dying from infection
- disease of affluence (heart disease, cancer) replaced infectous diseases.
- affected the middle age more than young
The population may have just developed a natural resistence
SF- Improved Nutrition
McKeown argues, it accounts for half of the reduction in death rate, and TB reduction.
- better nutrition- Resistence, Survival
McKeown cant explain-
- why females, while recieving less food,live longer than males.
- why infectous diseases increased, at a time of better nutrition.
SF- Medical Improvements
Before 1950s medicine didn't help.
After 1950's- did help
- Advances in antibiotics, blood transfusions, improved maternity services- NHS 1948.
- Reduced deaths from heart disease by 1/3- from by-pass surgery.
SF- Smoking and Diet
Smoking and Diet
- Reduction in the number of people smoking had a greater impact than medical advancements,
- Obesity replaced smoking for lifestyle epidemic- UK, 2012 1/4 adults were obese
- Deaths from obesity have stayed low due to drug treatments
- Moving to an American health culture- unhealthy lifestyle, long lives due to medication
SF- Public Health Measures
Public Health Measures:
In the 20th century, the government enforced important improvements in public health and the environment
- improvements in housing(drier, less overcrowding)
- cleaner drinking water
- laws to combat adulterisation of food and drink- reduces quality.
- improved sewage systems
Clean Air Acts, reduced air pollution- smog (which led to 4,000 deaths in 1952,)
Reducing death rate in the 20th century-
- deline in manual jobs- mining
- smaller families- less risk of infection
- knowledge of illness
- lifestlye changes
- higer income- healthier lifestyle
- How long on average a person born in a certain year is expected to live
- males- 50
Reasons for low LE- 1900
Many infants didnt survive their first years of life.
- A baby today has a better chance of reaching 65 than a baby did at reaching their 1st birthday in 1900
- currently 10,000 (10 thousand) centarians in the UK, by 2100 projected to be 1,000,000 (1 million)
Class, Gender, Regional Differences
- Women generally live longer than men.
- (gap has narrowed due to less men smoking and changes in emploment
- People living in the North and Scotland have a lower life expectancy than people in the south.
- those living in pooer areas of england die 7 years earlier than those in richer areas
- WALKER -Working class men are 3 times more likely to die before they are 65 compared with men in higer managerial roles