Death Rate

Death Rate-

  • the number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
  • UK death rate in 2012: 8.9
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Resons for decline in death rate- TRANTER


Decline in 1850-1970

  • decline due to the fall in number of deaths from infectious diseases(diptheria, measles, smallpox,typhoid, TB)
  • Most common among young, so.. 
  • Most of decline came from children not dying from infection
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  • disease of affluence (heart disease, cancer) replaced infectous diseases.
  • affected the middle age more than young

The population may have just developed a natural resistence

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SF- Improved Nutrition

Improved Nutrition:

McKeown argues, it accounts for half of the reduction in death rate, and TB reduction.

  • better nutrition- Resistence, Survival


McKeown cant explain-

  • why females, while recieving less food,live longer than males.
  • why infectous diseases increased, at a time of better nutrition.
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SF- Medical Improvements

Medical Improvements:

Before 1950s medicine didn't help.

After 1950's- did help

  • Advances in antibiotics, blood transfusions, improved maternity services- NHS 1948.
  • Reduced deaths from heart disease by 1/3- from by-pass surgery.
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SF- Smoking and Diet

Smoking and Diet


  • Reduction in the number of people smoking had a greater impact than medical advancements,
  • Obesity replaced smoking for lifestyle epidemic- UK, 2012 1/4 adults were obese
  • Deaths from obesity have stayed low due to drug treatments
  • Moving to an American health culture- unhealthy lifestyle, long lives due to medication
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SF- Public Health Measures

Public Health Measures:

In the 20th century, the government enforced important improvements in public health and the environment

  • improvements in housing(drier, less overcrowding)
  • cleaner drinking water
  • laws to combat adulterisation of food and drink- reduces quality.
  • improved sewage systems

Clean Air Acts, reduced air pollution- smog (which led to 4,000 deaths in 1952,)

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Other SF

Reducing death rate in the 20th century-

  • deline in manual jobs- mining
  • smaller families- less risk of infection
  • knowledge of illness
  • lifestlye changes
  • higer income- healthier lifestyle
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Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy:

  • How long on average a person born in a certain year is expected to live


  • males- 50
  • females-57


  • males-90.7
  • females-94
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Reasons for low LE- 1900

Many infants didnt survive their first years of life.

  • A baby today has a better chance of reaching 65 than a baby did at reaching their 1st birthday in 1900
  • currently 10,000 (10 thousand) centarians in the UK, by 2100 projected to be 1,000,000 (1 million)
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Class, Gender, Regional Differences


  • Women generally live longer than men.
    • (gap has narrowed due to less men smoking and changes in emploment


  • People living in the North and Scotland have a lower life expectancy than people in the south.
  • those living in pooer areas of england die 7 years earlier than those in richer areas


  • WALKER -Working class men are 3 times more likely to die before they are 65 compared with men in higer managerial roles
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