- Created by: Charlottefwilliams
- Created on: 11-10-18 08:44
Factors Affecting Population Size:
Births (population increase)
Immigration- enter the country (population increase)
Emmigration- leave the country
Natural Change- there are more births than deaths
Net Migration- there are more people immigrating than emmigrating
Birth Rate: the amount of babies born per thousand of population/per year.
Total Fertility Rate: on average how many children women will have during their fertile years.
Reasons for change
Changes in birth and fertility rates
- More women are staying childless
- The average age that women have children has risen to 30, fertility rates are increasing for 30-40.
Older women---less fertilie---less children produced.
Reasons for a decline in birth rate- 1
Changes in position of women
- more quality
- better education
- access to divorce
- a change in attitudes
Women can control thier own fertility due to btter contraception, so birth rates have declined. but also there has been a nge in mindset for women as many now focuse on generating a career for themselves first, instead of the traditional way of producing children.
Decline in infant mortality rate:
(number of infants that die before 1st birthday/thousand/year)
- better housing and sanitaion
- better nutriton for infants, and also women
- less women working
- medical developments
A falling IMR leads to falling birth rate (Brass & Kabir)
Children are an economic liabillity:
- Laws- banning children from working, compulsory schooling, an increase in leave school age-- makes children more economically dependent on parents.
- Changing Norms- the expectations of the material items from adult to child, means parents are spending more and more on children.
Families are having less children, so more time and attention is given to children- quantity to quality shift.
Reason for slight increase:
Since 2001 there has been an increase in immigration, mothers from outside the UK immigrating to the UK on average have a higher fertility rate.
Overall projection for 2041:
Up to 2041 the expected annual number of births will be 300,000 per year.
Effects of changing fertility-1
- smaller families , where both parents are able to work and take care of less children.
The Dependency Ratio:
- The earnings of the productive population are supporting the dependent population, children are a hude part of that group.
- Fall in children will reduce the 'burden of dependency'
Public services and policies:
- less children- less cost of school, maternity and child health sevices, also cost of housing developments decreasing.
- political decision- government will decide.