Decline in birth rate

Decline in infant mortality

This means families aren't having as many babies incase one dies due to-

  • Improved housing
  • Better sanitation
  • Better health, hygiene and welfare knowledge
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Decline in birth rate

Child centeredness-

Parents are more attached to the 1 or smaller amount of children so spend all their time and money on and with them.

Family size has shifted to Quality 


The parents want to give the smaller amount of children a better quality of life.

A03- wc parents may have more children as a way of recieving more money from the state, meaning each children will have less and attention and money spent on them.

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Decline in birth rate

Children are an economic liability

Children are now so expensive less couples can afford to have a baby so they choose a career first to in order to have money needed to pay for the baby,

Need money for all the essentials when a baby and then for clubs they want to join as the child gets older and they expect pocket money.

A03- Children used to be assets as they were put to work for the family business, now they need money instead of making the family money. 

Laws banning child labour and compulsory education- change in norms

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Decline in birth rate

Change in womens position-

Education of women= an important reason for a long term fall in birth and fertility rates.

Good education= a good job as equality is increasing and women can now achieve 'male' high up jobs (breaking through the glass ceiling) so they are leaving having children until later.

Contraception and abortions- females now have control over fertility and their lives- no longer just baby makers due to the increased availability of contraception and abortions being more accepted.

A03- Marxists believe womens only job is to reproduce and have no choice over her fertility- no contracepion and if a man wants a baby he gets a baby.

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Decline in death rates

Better healthcare-

NHS introduced and the elderly need treating for more illnesses

Increased healthcare= live longer as they now have way sof treating illnesses they may come across

^resulting in a longer life

A03- More pressure on the public services as more people are requiring their help- elderly need more medical care than everyone else and now there is an increased number of them.

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Decline in death rates

Improved housing-

E.g damp or mould in houses could effect their health and become ill

However, now there is better houses meaning that the elderlys hygiene and sanitation will increase due to a better, clean house.

no illnesses caught=longer life

A03- elderly wc will have poor housing as they can't afford good, reuslting in ill health and maybe death.

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Decline in death rate

Less manual labout jobs

This means there are less people in a dangerous job which could cause severe injury or illness.

Less people risk their lives and die as an increase in technology takes over from many dangerous manual labour jobs.

A03- wc still have manual labour jobs due to a lack of achievement at school or to show their masculinity. So they risk their lives and therefore may increase the death rate or stop it from decreasing.

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Decline in death rate

More knowledge (medicine, healthcare, diseases)

Doctors can now prescribe medicine to help and give accurate diagnosis to patients and tell them way sto help recover due to having a more detailed understanding now.

Giving accurate info to the elderly on how to care for themselves means the death rate will decrease.

A03- Now dying of dieases of affluence- due to having more money nowadays- buying themselves into a death.

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Ageing population- positives

Less crime-

The elderly do not tend to commit crimes. 

In 2014 4.9 million elderly volunteered in local community watch- keeping community together and going.

Increased economy- (marxist)

Fueling capitalism- they buy anti-ageing products

They don't earn a wage but spend a lot of money

They live longer so have to buy more food for example to keep them alive

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Ageing population- positives

Much less ageism-

Used to think the elderly were useless however, they are now respected in the community.

Working longer-

Retirement age increasing

Meaning the dependency ratio decreased as elderly are now considered at a later age.

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Ageing population -negatives

More pressure on women-

They have to care for the elderly members of their family

Due to having an expressive role it is expected of them

More pressue on public services-

Healthcare, transport (bus passes)

An increasing amount of tax population has to pay so the elderly can have more health care.

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Ageing population- negatives

Lack of housing

Young people are left without housing because elderly are living longer so stay in their house so young people trying to find a house are unsuccessful.

Dependency ratio increasing-

A lot more elderly people

People are living longer and having less children so there are more old people.

The amount of old people compared to the working population is increasing.

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