Demography

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Change in Birth rates

Change in birth rate

  • Birth rates hit the lowest point in 2001
  • Birth rate is measured in two ways; the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year or the proportion of women who are at childbearing age (15-44) and how fertile they are

Reasons for the decline

  • Change in position and attitudes of women
  • Introduction of contraception and abortion
  • Families no longer need to have as many children because infant mortality rate has decreased

Reasons for the increase

  • The UK population increases thus the birth rate increases
  • Women are putting of having babies until later and so when they reach the age of 35-40 they are having children and so birth rates increase
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Implications of the change in birth rates

Implications of a decrease

  • Shortage of employable adults for the workforce
  • Less children means that more schools close
  • There are fewer people putting money back into the countries economy

Implications of an increase

  • Strain on the education system, overcrowding and underfunding
  • More people putting back into the economy so less of a strain
  • Strain on the heathcare system, more people requiring looking after
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Change in Mortality rates

Change in death rates

  • Death rate is measured by the number of people who die per 1000 of the population per year
  • The two world wars and the spanish influenza increased the death rates in the early twentieth century but since then the death rate has decreased

Reasons for the decrease

  • Lifestyles are improving, people are more aware of how to maintain a healthy lifestyle i.e not smoking
  • Change in the economy so better medical care 
  • Improving housing and sanitation

Implications of the decrease

  • Overpopulation results in overconsumption
  • Massive strain on the public purse
  • Strain on the NHS, people need more healthcare because they're living longer
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Change in Migration

Reasons for emigration

  • Emigration involves leaving a country
  • Conflict or war
  • Discrimination
  • Employment opportunities
  • Family connections
  • Weather

Reasons for imigration

  • Imigration involves entering a country
  • 1850s potatoe famin in ireland
  • WW2 saw and influx of polish people into britain after Hitler invaded
  • 1950s saw an economic boom and so people sought employment opportunities in other countries
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Implication of the change in migration

Implications of emigration

  • Brain drain, high number of skilled graduates leave for better opportunities
  • Wealth is taken out of the country
  • If large numbers of young people leave it may take some places longer to be progressive

Implications of imigration

  • Overpopulation means overstretched public services e.g education, the NHS
  • Bigger workforce creates more wealth
  • People from different places have different norms and values this can cause conflict between people
  • Countries are becoming more right winged
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