Demographic Trends

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Births

  • Change in the Position of Women: life outside tradition, reliable contraception, legal equality, acess to divorce, women can choose a career
  • Child centredness: more attention on children, treating the needs of children as a priority, change from quality to quantity
  • Decline in Infant Mortality: 1900 (15% of infants died, now falling), no need to replace
  • Economic liability: enhanced financial pressure, average cost of 200,000, laws have banned child labour
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Deaths

  • Improved nutrition: people live longer, more convenience foods
  • Medical improvements: better surgery, improved medical knowledge, NHS, improved medication
  • Public heath measures: free milk and school meals, purer drinking water, housing, open space policy, effective central and local government
  • Social change: smaller families, known causes of illness, higher incomes, less dangerous manual jobs
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Migration

  • Immigration factors: jobs, strong economy, good government, safety, education
  • Emigration factors: no jobs, poor economy, no houses, war, poor social support, natural disasters
  • Example: 42,300 people moved into Birmingham, 45,500 moved out
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