- Being in a crowd diminishes awareness of individuality
- We are anonymous - do not fear retribution and lower sense of guilt
- Aggression occurs because public self awareness is decreased
- Anonymity leads to diffusion of responsibility and a lack of internal standards.
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Why does deindividuation lead to decreased self ag
Diener proposed PRRR
- Poor self monitoring of behaviour
- Reduced need for social approval
- Reduced inhibitions against behaving impulsively
- Reduced rational thinking
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How does PRRR lead to aggressive behaviour?
- In a crowd there is a loss of identity e.g a mob
- Individual feels less constrained by norms of social behaviour
- Behave in antisocial manner
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Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment
- Zimbardo used 24 male ppts to investigate the role of deindividuation in institutions
- He gave the guards uniforms and reflector sunglasses
- Sense of power and anonymity from glasses as eye contact could not be made
- "Prisoners" were treated like them
- Found that guards created brutal atmosphere
- Many seemed to enjoy the power and control that came with the uniform
- Therefore, deindividuation leads to lowered sense of personal identity.
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Evidence for environmental determinism
- Supporting research
- Zimbardo - found that females who wore clothing that effectively cloaked them gave higher shocks to stooges than uncloaked.
- Identities were hidden so became deindividuated so could act more aggressively.
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- Led to practical applications in how police deal with crowds
- Police aim to target individuals rather than punish crowd. Less deindividuated and more likely to accept responsibility for individual behaviour.
- Supports idea that environment of a crowd leads to aggression
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Evidence against environmental determinism
- Deindividuation doesn't always lead to aggressive behaviour
- People in crowds such as peaceful protests do not become aggressive
- Might be more appropriate to consider deindividuation as an example of soft determinism as factors such a disposition of crowd and their reasons for being there influence aggression levels.
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