Deviation from Ideal Mental Health
JAHODA'S 6 CRITERIA:
- Self actualisation
- Self confidence
- Accurate perception of reality
- Adaptability to environment
- Resistance to stress
If any of these categories are missing then she claims that they have a mental illness.
- More positive approach
- Could create therapeutic aims
- Have to have above average functioning - over-demanding, most people would be abnormal
- Culturally Relative - based on Western views
Failure to Function Adequately
A scale is used to measure how far a person is unable to cope with everyday life.
It states that a clear change in the pattern of behaviour is sign of a mental disorder.
- Relies on sufferers judgement
- Cultural relativity is not an issue - the principle of being unable to function adequately is applicable in all different cultures.
- Failure to function adequately may not be due to a psychological disorder - for example, poverty and discrimination may stop a person from being able to have a job or support a family.
- Context dependent - what may be seen as inappropriate behaviour in some situations may be perfectly rational in others.
- Subjective Interpretation.
Deviation from Social Norms
Any behaviour that does not follow accepted social patterns or rules. If a person does not adhere to these rules then they can be seen as abnormal.
There are implicit norms (unwritten rules within a social group, for example, having to wear clothes in public), and explicit norms (which are written as law, for example, you cannot murder someone).
- Looks at the impact of an individual's behaviour upon other people.
- For the greater good of society.
- Subject to abuse
- Social norms change over time.