data portability


JPEG - Joint Photographics Group

  • JPEG is a compressed Bitmap.
  • File size is low due to reuced pixel patterns or repitition of pixel patterns.
  • Origionally designed for photographs.
  • JPEG does not support animation or transparency.
  • Copmression used is lossy.
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GIF - Graphics Interchange Format

  • GIF is a cmpressed bitmap image file type.
  • GIF files can be singular still images or animated sequences of images.
  • It can contain transparent pixels.
  • Lossless compression is used.
  • File size is kept low by restricting colour depth.
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PNG - Portable Network Graphics

  • PNG is pronounced "ping".
  • It is a compressed, bitmapped image file type.
  • It was initially developed for online image sharing.
  • PNG files do not use CMYK colour mode which is made for printing.
  • Uses lossless compression techniques.
  • Supports transparent pixels.
  • Does not support animation.
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TIFF - Tagged Image File Format

  • Developed to be usable in Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems.
  • Used as a standard file type in commercial printing.
  • OCR software commonly produces TIFF files from scans.
  • TIFF files can be used for holding images of other file types.
  • They have a very complex structure compared to other image file types.
  • Uses both lossy and lossless compression.
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  • Apple developed PICT as their native graphic file type for the interchange of graphics between various Apple programs.
  • Since the release of Mac OS X the format has been superseded by PDF.
  • It is an object-oriented file type.
  • It can store vector and bitmap graphics.
  • it can use up to 24-bit colour, yeilding 224 or 16,777,216 colours which is known as true colour.
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TXT - Text

  • TXT is pronounce "text".
  • Plain text files can be stored as .TXT files.
  • A TXT file will store charactor strings that can be readily veiwed and edited.
  • No additional formatting information will be associated with the text.
  • The entire contents will be presented textually
  • it will not be interpreted as formatting information.
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CSV - Comma Separated Values

  • CSV files are plain text files.
  • They can be created, viewed and edited using plain text editor.
  • They can also be opened within spreadshhet and database packages.
  • When data is structured in a tabular manner it will have a common structure on each row.
  • When stored in a spreadsheet or database, it has clearly visable columns.
  • A comma charactor is used to separate the data values into respective columns.
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RTF - Rich Text Format

  • RTF format is used for text based documents and supports basic formatting.
  • It allows text files to be moved between different word processors and operating systems.
  • Documents scanned by an OCR facility of a scvanner are usually saved as RTF files.
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PDF - Portable Document Format

  • A PDF file holds text, formatting and images.
  • It can also potentially hold some editable regions which can be filled in by the user.
  • This file type can be viewed using many applications across a wide range of operating systems andhardware platforms.
  • Graphics, spreadsheets, webpages and several other files can be exported to PDF file.
  • It has powerful compression techniques which keeps file size low.
  • It has password protection, to reduce both access and likelyhood of breaches of copyright.
  • Metadata is used to improve the speed of text ssearches and for labelling document etc.
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WAV - Windows Waveform

  • WAV is pronounced "wave".
  • This file format is lossless and provides a close likeness to the origional anologue sound.
  • Lots of programs are available to help manipulate WAV files.
  • WAV files have a simple digital representation.
  • WAV files are generally too large to be practical for online distrubution.
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MP3 - MPEG Audio Layer 3

  • MP3 uses lossy compression techniques.
  • WAV files can be stored in MP3 format, this enables more sound data to fit into storage dedvises without a noticable sound quality deterioration.
  • The music indistry tends not to use MP3 because of this deterioration.
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WMA - Windows Media Audio

  • This was developed by Microsoft to compete with MP3 for popularity.
  • LIke MP3, uses lossy compression.
  • Amont of compression can be vareid.
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MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface

  • Captured using a serial interface connected to an electric musical instrument or other sound system.
  • the connctions linking them are called MIDI channels  and data can be sent and recieved from serial interface by MIDI channels.
  • Thanks to MIDI standard, all MIDI technology is interoperable.
  • MIDI is not a storage format, it is a transmittion.
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MPEG - Moving/Motion Picture Experts Group

  • MPEG is a widely used video file format.
  • it uses delta cmpression, which involves transmitting only the information about pixels that change between frames of a video.
  • this reduces the overall data transmitted.
  • To sustain the overall video quality, a whole frame will also be transmitted but at less frequent intervals.
  • MPEG can be used on optical disks for various video resolutions.
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MP4 - MPEG-4 Part 14

  • The MP4 formmamt was designed for digital streming over the internet.
  • It stores and plays digital audio with video.
  • Since it's part of MPEG standards MP3 can be played on MP4 players.
  • It supports subtitling nad online streaming and the file can still include images.
  • Lossy compression is used to reduce the file size.
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AVI - Audio Video Interleave

  • AVI supports multiple audio and vidio streams playing back from 1 file.
  • No further compression is applied to existing clips saved as AVI format.
  • This sutains the origional quality but leads to higher file sizes until optional compression is applied.
  • AVI files do not store the ratio of width to height for playback.
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