Coasts - Case Studies

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1. Case Study

Rising Sea Levels - Maltives

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2. About the Maltives

  • Group of islands in the Indian ocean

  • About 300,000 people

  • 1.5m above sea level

  • Completely submerged within 50-100 years

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3. Economic Impacts

  • Loss of tourism

  • Disrupted fishing industry

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4. Social Impacts

  • Houses damaged or destroyed

  • Less freshwater available

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5. Environmental Impacts

  • Loss of beaches

  • Loss of soil

  • Loss of habitat

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6. Political Impacts

  • Have to build a large sea wall around their capital city - $60 million

  • Change environmental policies

  • Changes to long term plans including buying land from India and Australia

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7. Case Study

Rising sea levels (UK): East Anglia

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8. About East Anglia

  • East of England

  • Low lying

  • Severe flood warnings

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9. Social Impacts

  • Deaths from storm surges

  • Homes worthless and destroyed

  • Contamination of water supplies

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10. Ecomomic Impacts

  • The Thames barrier will cost £80bn to be rebuilt

  • Tourism lost costing the economy £5m

  • Farmland lost

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11. Environmental Impacts

  • 22% of the salt marsh will be lost by 2050

  • Contamination of water supplies and soil

  • Erosion of coastline

  • Loss of habitat

  • Larger storms

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12. Case Study

Coastal Erosion - Happisburgh

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13. About Happisburgh

  • Norwich, Norfolk

  • Fasting eroding area in the world

  • 1400 people, 600 houses

  • Contains listed buildings and a lighthouse

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14. Why did the erosion happen?

  • Long fetch

  • Soft, non-resistant rock

  • Permeable rock (Rotational Slumping)

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15. How did it happen?

  • Long fetch

  • Soft, non-resistant rock

  • Permeable rock (Rotational Slumping)

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16. Social Impacts

  • Homes lost

  • A large church destroyed - 60m away from the sea. 2020 it will be in the sea.

  • Deaths

  • Property prices fallen - £80,000 to £1

  • Farmland lost

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17. Economic Impacts

  • Cost of defences - approx £4m

  • Tourism lost

  • Economy destroyed

  • Lighthouse damaged

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18. Environmental Impacts

  • Habitats destroyed

  • Migrating sand martins nest in cliffs – endangered

  • Norfolk broads would flood, fish could become endangered

  • Towns and villages lost - houses were worth £80,000 now work £1

  • 25 properties and life boat station gone
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19. Sea Defences that could be put in place.

  • Rock armour

  • Groynes

  • Sea wall

  • Revetments

  • Managed retreat

  • Rock reefs

  • CCAG (Coastal Concern Action Group): Campaigning to protect homes, communities and livelihoods

  • Cost of sea defences approx £4m for 500metres
  • Council defended area in 2007, 5000 tonnes of granite rip-rap, £200,000
  • Government refused to protect Happisburgh as it is less valuable than the cost of sea defences to protect it.
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20. Case Study

Coastal Management - Beesands

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21. About Beesands

  • South west, England

  • At risk of erosion

  • Hard Engineering

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22. Defences at Beesands

  • Rock Armour all along the beach in front of buildings

  • Sea wall in front of the main area of housing and buildings

  • Gabions

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23. How have locals protected their homes?

  • Window guards to protect glass in storms

  • Drains outside their houses

  • Flood alarms in each house

  • Doorway protection

  • Sand bags

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24. Case Study

Coastal Habitat - Dawlish

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25. About Dawlish

  • Devon

  • Spit

  • Nature reserve

  • Sand Dunes

  • Salt marsh

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26. Defences Found

  • Fences

  • Duck boards

  • Signs

  • Visitors centre

  • Ponies

  • Restrictions

  • Groynes

  • Gabions

  • Education

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27. Explain Sand Dunes

  • Mobile sand dune: to react to storm events

  • Semi-fixed dune

  • Dune slack

  1. Sand dries out on a beach.

  2. Wind blows the sand onto land.

  3. Sand is deposited at the back of the beach.

  4. Plants like Marram grass grow on the ridge of san and provide extra shelter for more sand.

  5. The plants decay when they die and this mixes with the sand

  6. Water cannot drain away because of the mix of sand and decayed plant. More plants grow.

  7. Plants grow like gorse and bramble

  8. Ponds form further away from the beach where the soil is wet

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28. Case Study

Managed Retreat - Wallisea

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29. About Wallisea

  • Low lying island in Essex

  • Formed by the River Crouch and Roach

  • Creating new mudflats and salt marshes

  • Protecting sea wall and land to the south

  • Create new habitats for migrating birds

  • £7.5 million

  • Allow areas to flood and act like a sponge

  • 3.5km stretch

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30. Benefits

  • RSPB – migrating birds

  • Farmers get compensation

  • Visitor footpaths and cycle ways

  • Protect land to the south

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31. Disadvantages

  • Farmers will lose land and therefore their business

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32. The land will change...

  • North side was straight from west to east

  • Had shallow beaches and wheat farmers land

  • Transformed into marshland, mudflats, salt marshes, lagoons and fresh water streams.

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33. Case Study

Coastal Habitats - Studland Bay

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34. About Studland Bay

  • Beaches

  • Dunes

  • Heathland

  • Sheltered from highly erosive waves

  • Nature reserve

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35. Coastal Wildlife

  • Adders, grass snakes, sand lizards and slow worms

  • Dartford Warblers (rare bird), shielducks and grebes

  • Seahorses  (only place in Britain where the spiny seahorse breeds)

  • Marram grass, lyme grass and heather

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36. Adaptations

  • Marram grass: Folded leaves to reduce water loss, long roots to stay stable in the sand and to take up water.

  • Lyme grass: Waxy leaves to reduce water loss by transpiration

  • Reptiles: Thick, scaly skin to reduce water loss. Also protects them from the rough terrain.

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