Alexander III 1881-1894
Russia = crisis because of assasination of prior Tsar. He had Very difficult job as his father had begun reform raising standards of the worlds largest country with huge multi-ethnic society. & PRESSURE TO MATCH CENTRAL/WESTERN EUROPE.Howver some (slavophiles) wanted russia to develop uniquely with tsar with autocratic power Alexander dissapproved of his father and wanted to bring back conservatism. By 1870s - Educated classes believed that the beginning of major political change was political & judicial reform & emancipation of the serfs. + END OF AUTOCRACY - CREATION OF ZMESTVA 1864, TRIAL BY JURY 1870 Serfs = restricted & modest political reform = unhappy radicals who led to believe eradiction of tsarism = way forward.
PEOPLES WILL FORMED, murdered tsarist officials in 1870s - 1881 Alexander II assassinated following unsuccessful attempts in previous years- on way to sign decree for elective gov. Assass' threatened social&poilt system - (R.O.C) top of society & tsar & workers at bottom -WHEN ALEXANDER III LAUNCHED REPRESSION = WIDESPREAD SUPPORT FROM UPPER. Some wanted tsars rule RID OF. Others wanted peasants to have absolute power.
Liberal ministers were got rid of, pobedonostev wielded immense power & influence , masterminded the manifesto declaring absolute power resided within the tsar- stability lieing in R.O.C,AUTOCRACY,NATIONALISM.
Immediate task destroy peoples will org. - anyone opposing gov were arrested & put on trial without jury &thousands exiled 2 siberia /executed - gov-controlled courts stayed untill end of tsarist autoc in 1917 Press freedom & media = heavily restricted & foreign works cenrsored by okhrana preventing dangerous ideas reaching people. universities only took wealthy yet opposition was not destroyed as they worked underground. pobedonostov undid reforms by alex II - LAND CAPTIANS PART OF LANDED CLASSES & FRANCHISE TO ZEMSTVA REDUCED TO ENSURE ELECTIVE POWER ONLY TO HIGHEST MEMBERS OF SOCIETY. church control over schools & sons of peasants/workers prevented from education Pobed. turned back clock of reform - Russia back under the church & landed classes.Russification meant that everybody had to speack russian & all other languages forbidden. jews suffered paticularly,with organised attacks & fled to europe/north americ Russia = underdeveloped economically, needs to catch up with europe - First finance minister 1882= bunge, offered loans to peasants to increase land and be productive & reduced their tax vyshnegradsky '87 financed economic development from loans by late 1890s most money from france and Britain- foundations laid for rapid development + offerend money for peasants to migrate to siberia to take pressure off land demand OCT 1894, ALEX III DIES OF KIDNEY DISEASE, - ALL HIS OPPONENTS EXILED TO SIBERIA/KILLED - '95 bolshevik Lenin exiled to sibera under emerg legislation for 14months.- BAD LAND PROBS, famines in 91, 92,93.