Cultural influences on gender

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  • Created by: KCharlish
  • Created on: 14-04-16 19:26

AO1 1 Division of labour

  • Division of labour appears to be universal
    • Munroe Munroe - cross cultural studies of gender show that every society has some division of labour and behaviour by gender.
    • Child care is sometimes shared but in no society is it the major responsibility of males. 
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AO1 2 Differences in aggressiveness

  • Mead - observed that in all 3 of the cultures she studied in Papua New Guinea the men were more aggressive than women. 
  • Between cultures some women were more aggressive than other women.
  • Cultural relativism - aggression is innate but the degree is relative to the culture. 
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AO1 3 Sex stereotypes

  • Sex stereotypes are universal
  • Williams and Best
    • studied gender stereotypes in 30 nations. 
    • broad consensus across countries
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AO1 4 Conformity

  • Berry et al - Conformity highest in tightly knit socieites.
  • general consensus that women are more conformist than men
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AO2 1 Alternative explanation for universiality

  • Eagly and Wood - division is an indirect outcome of biological differences rather than a direct outcome.
  • Physical differences lead to social role differences
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AO2 2 Mate preferences

  • Eagly and Wood - re analysed Buss' data on sex differences in mate preferences
  • When women have a higher status the sex differences in mating become less pronounced. 
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AO2 3 Labour divisions

  • Labour divisions are the same in most but not all cultures. 
  • Japanese cultures - do not seek to be macho men but more rounded in the arts - trait normally regarded as feminine. 
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AO2 4 Alternative cultural explanation

  • in cultures where women contribute a lot to food accumulation women are highly valued. 
  • less regarded as sexual and reproductive objects
  • occupy a higher position and less need to conform to demands 
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AO2 5 Mead criticism

  • Freeman - criticised Mead's research
    • Samoans told him they had provided mead with the information she wanted to hear
    • conclusions are not based on valid data
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IDA Cultural bias

Study by Williams and Best used a westernised questionnaire - may not have the same meanings in other cultures - do not comment their real attitudes

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AO2 6 Issues with cross cultural research

  • ususally a natural experiment 
  • IV = culture
  • cannot conclude observable differences in behaviour as participants have not been randomly allocated to conditions
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