AO1 1 Division of labour
- Division of labour appears to be universal
- Munroe Munroe - cross cultural studies of gender show that every society has some division of labour and behaviour by gender.
- Child care is sometimes shared but in no society is it the major responsibility of males.
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AO1 2 Differences in aggressiveness
- Mead - observed that in all 3 of the cultures she studied in Papua New Guinea the men were more aggressive than women.
- Between cultures some women were more aggressive than other women.
- Cultural relativism - aggression is innate but the degree is relative to the culture.
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AO1 3 Sex stereotypes
- Sex stereotypes are universal
- Williams and Best
- studied gender stereotypes in 30 nations.
- broad consensus across countries
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AO1 4 Conformity
- Berry et al - Conformity highest in tightly knit socieites.
- general consensus that women are more conformist than men
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AO2 1 Alternative explanation for universiality
- Eagly and Wood - division is an indirect outcome of biological differences rather than a direct outcome.
- Physical differences lead to social role differences
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AO2 2 Mate preferences
- Eagly and Wood - re analysed Buss' data on sex differences in mate preferences
- When women have a higher status the sex differences in mating become less pronounced.
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AO2 3 Labour divisions
- Labour divisions are the same in most but not all cultures.
- Japanese cultures - do not seek to be macho men but more rounded in the arts - trait normally regarded as feminine.
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AO2 4 Alternative cultural explanation
- in cultures where women contribute a lot to food accumulation women are highly valued.
- less regarded as sexual and reproductive objects
- occupy a higher position and less need to conform to demands
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AO2 5 Mead criticism
- Freeman - criticised Mead's research
- Samoans told him they had provided mead with the information she wanted to hear
- conclusions are not based on valid data
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IDA Cultural bias
Study by Williams and Best used a westernised questionnaire - may not have the same meanings in other cultures - do not comment their real attitudes
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AO2 6 Issues with cross cultural research
- ususally a natural experiment
- IV = culture
- cannot conclude observable differences in behaviour as participants have not been randomly allocated to conditions
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